Allergic conjunctivitis in children is characterized by rapid development of the inflammatory reaction of the mucous membrane of the eye (conjunctiva). Causal factor process is the hypersensitivity reaction (Allergy) to the action of a certain substance. In children with this pathology there is an unpleasant itching, redness and burning of eyes and eyelids. Observed sensitive swelling and bouts of watery eyes.
This disease is very prevalent on the globe. Its characteristic feature is the development of in all age groups. But particularly suffer from this disease toddlers.
The origin of this disease marked hereditary criteria and the inherent weakness of the body’s defenses.
Types causes and classification
Leak condition may in three main forms:
- Subacute (latent).
- Chronic with periodic exacerbations.
- Astondoa for any time of the year, is a painful factor is present constantly near to the sick and the causes of exacerbation.
- Seasonal-periodic type associated with a specific time of the year in which the activity of the allergen (flowers, spores, leaves, feathers) most increased. Refers to this spring and pollinozy conjunctivitis.
- Contact. Clinical symptoms of this option is invoked when direct contact with the cause of the problem. In children, most often eye ointments, drops, cleaning supplies, etc.
Causal classification distinguishes forms:
- Drug. Some types of medications that are assigned to young children, cause them to have symptoms of allergic inflammation of the conjunctiva.
- Atopic. In this case we are talking about direct contact with the substance acting as an allergen (hair, feathers, dust, cleaning products and washing detergent, washing powder, etc.)
- TB. When infected tuberculin sticks for some kids it could start a reaction of hypersensitivity to products of vital activity of the pathological Mycobacterium tuberculosis. One of the forms of manifestation is keratoconjunctivitis.
- Infectious. To normal inflammatory reaction, manifested on the mucous membrane of eyes, can join the allergic component. In this case we are talking about the infectious-allergic form of the disease.
- Krupnoplodnaja. A specific form, in a cause which is based on contact of the cornea with foreign objects, e.g. contact lenses, fluids. This kind of disease can be caused by the postoperative period after undergoing ophthalmic surgery.
Complaints and symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis in children
Babies and infants with their complaints can not tell. The problem can be seen only mom, or someone close to you, also when examination by a pediatrician.
The process can be both one side and double-sided.
An allergic reaction can occur very quickly upon contact with a major allergen for several minutes. In this case we are talking about “reactions of immediate type“. If complaints and symptoms develop gradually, incrementally, over several days, in this case, a response “delayed type”.
Small patients of older age complain:
- Scratching of the eye;
- Profuse lacrimation.
When the inspection is determined by swelling, redness of the mucous membrane and the eyelid, mucous, clear or turbid, with threadlike veins, purulent discharge in the corners of his eyes. Children are fussy, crying, not eating or sleeping.
If the disease is delayed, then the complaints and external features are added:
- Dry eye of the cornea.
- Strengthening of the pain (“sand in eyes”).
- The development of photophobia.
- “Cloudy” vision.
Symptoms of keratoconjunctivitis are often combined with inflammation of the nasal mucosa and are accompanied by:
- Symptoms of rhinitis with abundant mucous secretions “pouring water”.
- Multiple (serial) bout of sneezing and coughing.
- Redness and irritation of skin around the nose.
Features of clinical forms of conjunctivitis
Each option has its specific features which allow you to accurately make a diagnosis and prescribe an appropriate treatment.
The beginning of a very fast (immediate type). The characteristic “eye complaints” quickly joined by morbid changes in the internal organs. On the cornea can develop ulcers. On the skin – rash (urticaria), very soon complicated by dermatitis.
In children clearly, even at a distance heard a peculiar respiration, with shortness of breath caused by asthmatic bronchitis.
When delay of treatment may develop angioedema. General condition worsens, the children reported headaches. Decreased appetite, after a meal there is belching, nausea, intestinal disorders.
Exacerbation of this chronic disease occurs when increasing insolation in the spring and summer. First among the complaints in these cases are phenomena of epiteliopatia – periodically escalating erosion of the cornea. Over time, they lead to hyperkeratosis – non-physiological proliferation of the stratum corneum.
When inspecting the inner surfaces of the eyelids, the doctor detects enlarged papillae (>1 mm). They are formed as a result of contact with a foreign stimulus (the stitches, lenses, prosthetic eyes, etc.) If not properly treated, patients develop progressive drooping of the eyelid, which is called in medicine – “ptosis”.
A severe form of the disease. In children revealed: painful lacrimation, marked photophobia, and visible from the spasmodic contraction of the eye, due to spasms of the circular muscles (blepharospasm). Without anesthesia, the patient cannot even open the eye. The conjunctiva and the cornea are marked nodular forms of lesions. Eyes swollen. The process often joins a secondary infection. In young patients progressively eye drops.
This form is a complication on the background of antibiotic therapy and prolonged use of local anaesthetic drugs. The most common clinical picture occurs in the form of an acute process.
Long-term, chronic pathology, the causative agent of which is to allocate from the source is impossible due to his absence.
Examination of a pediatrician, or a child of an ophthalmologist includes:
- Inspection and survey of parents.
- Establishing the causes of the disease.
- The purpose of the analysis of eye secretions to identify the bacteria and eosinophils (characteristic of allergic process).
- Evaluation of the results of clinical blood analysis, in which the expert drew attention to the content of eosinophils.
- The production of serological tests with detection of specific immunoglobulin G.
It is important
Of special significance is diagnostics with the use of allergic skin tests. However, some should not be prescribed to children under the age of four.
Types of allergodil:
- Application (skin contact possible allergen).
- Run scratch tests for the application of contact chemicals on the skin small scratches that make using sterile instruments.
- Other (rarely used) – nasal (nasal test), conjunctival and sublingual.
Hematology diagnostics is used to determine the response of venous blood for some compounds.
If necessary, the child examined the condition of the gastrointestinal tract, liver and other organs.
Treatment of allergic conjunctivitis in children
To deliver the baby from the painful manifestations of this disease, should in the appointment of treatment to consider all the factors of the mechanism of development of pathology. The effect should be comprehensive. First of all, it is necessary to protect the child from causative agent, to eliminate contact of allergenic substances with a little patient. Immediately need to take medication antihistamine group of drugs.
In milder forms of pathological reaction is sufficient local therapy.
In severe cases, can not do without hormone therapy. Be sure to pay attention to strengthen the immune forces of the developing organism.
There are a variety of therapeutic schema, taking into account the age of the little patient, form of the disease, and other features of the course.
The classical treatment scheme is as follows:
- Cold water compress to 3 times a day for 10-15 minutes. Kids during sleep, because waking up, a small child will not allow him to do.
- Given eye drops having antihistamine effect, for example – Patanol, Cromolyn. Be sure to consider the age of the resolved preparations.
- Inside are appointed antihistamine syrups and tablets. You should pay attention to the generation of these medications. Especially on the side effects of the 1st and contraindications of the last generations.
- In the case of chronic problems with dry eye kids assigned slittamento (eg. Oftogel).
- To restore the cornea useful vitamins drops (Taufon, Emoxipin).
- To relieve severe inflammatory phenomena carefully, with medical supervision are given hormonal eye ointments and drops (based on Hydrocortisone, Dexamethasone).
- When purulent complications require local antibiotic therapy (in the drops).
Specific treatment include allergen-therapy (injection of gradually increasing doses of the primary allergen), to normalize the response of the immune system. In some cases, immunotherapy shows a globulin.
It is important
Any kind of help should be prescribed only by a medical specialist, do not self medicate and can lead to tragic complications.
Prevention and prognosis
To avoid exacerbations of the disease should follow a few simple rules that greatly reduce the likelihood of repeat and chronic allergic conjunctivitis.
- Constant maintenance of the dwelling in clean – wet cleaning and airing, cleaning of carpets from dust.
- Strict implementation of dietary recommendations. Eliminating from the menu of spices, sweets, chocolate and other products containing contributing to exacerbation of the disease the ingredients.
- Objectionable in the home where the child is allergic to Pets.
- It should also be arranged in the housing of the Conservatory of flowers and other plants.
- At the first sign of the onset of the disease must give written advance pediatrician antiallergic remedy and immediately visit a doctor.
- To exclude a direct contact with allergens to which the reaction occurs.
Very important for a good prognosis to support protective forces of the child, to do this it requires healthy walking, healthy habits, active lifestyle, personal hygiene. In this case, the phenomenon of allergic conjunctivitis will be kept to a minimum, and may eventually disappear altogether.
Latin Alexander, doctor, medical commentator