Allergic vasculitis is an inflammatory process affecting the walls of blood vessels and is caused by hypersensitivity reactions of the body to the allergen. Feature of the disease is vascular damage to small arteries. According to ICD No. 10 pathological process has code L95 – vasculitis limited to skin.
Under the influence of the allergen, the body produces immune complexes that are deposited on the walls of blood vessels. When this occurs, the tissue damage, increased permeability of the vascular wall with the subsequent development of the inflammatory process. The severity of the pathology depends on the amount of immune complexes in the blood.
Causes of vasculitis
The main cause of the inflammatory process in blood vessels is the action of the allergen. Distinguish the following groups of pathogens:
- Infectious agents – bacteria, fungi, viruses.
- Reaction to certain medications – antibiotics penicillin, insulin, vitamin preparations, contraceptives, streptokinase.
- Food allergens – a typical representative of the protein gluten in grains.
- Chemicals – household chemicals, insecticides, other chemicals.
All these substances surround people at work, at home. There are a number of factors contributing to the development of pathological sensitivity.
Provoke the development of allergic vasculitis:
- endocrinological disease;
- autoimmune processes;
- other diseases of the cardiovascular system;
- cirrhosis of the liver;
- malignant neoplasms of all organ systems.
The classification of the disease based on the size of the affected vascular highways.
- surface type – the inflamed capillaries of the dermal layer of the skin;
- deep type – affected major vascular highway of veins and arteries.
A characteristic feature of vasculitis is palpable purpura. Is a rash on the skin in various shades of red. The hallmark is that the rash protrudes above the surface of the dermis.
- thrombocytopenia in the blood;
- papules, infiltrates in the skin;
- on the site of the papules develop foci of necrosis;
- itching and pain in the region purpura;
- hyperpigmentation in the area of the rash, when healing is the formation of scar tissue.
A typical localization of the rash are the lower limbs. Purpura does not affect the mucous membranes, palms, and feet.
Vasculitis is a rare disease that has similar symptoms with other abnormalities of skin and other organs. Treatment of this inflammatory process is rheumatologists, hematologists and allergists.
Diagnostic measures begin with fizikalna examination and analysis of the patient’s complaints. Following laboratory studies:
In addition, shows the advice of a gynecologist for women, urologist in men with samples by PCR. In addition, shows the examination at the dermatologist, TB specialist, cardiologist, vascular surgeon, a rheumatologist.
For the diagnosis of inflammatory processes in blood vessels allergic nature uses the following instrumental methods:
Therapeutic measures consist in the relief of the inflammatory process, the identification of the allergen. Treatment of the vasculitis integrated with the use of drugs and diet.
Methods of patient management:
- To break contact with the allergen any origin.
- In the acute stage the patient shows a bed rest with the issuance of the certificate of incapacity.
- From the diet to exclude recognized products-allergens, salty, fried, spicy, marinades, spices. The basis of power in vasculitis diet is meat, vegetables, fruit.
- To observe the drinking regime – at least 2 liters of fluid per day. In severe disease shows intravenous infusion of fluids for hydration.
- When diagnosed with a bacterial infection, exacerbation of chronic illness therapy with antibiotics for selection of the doctor and the results of the bacterial analysis.
- Shows the assignment of corticosteroids dexamethasone, prednisolone – for the relief of the inflammatory process, reduction of manifestations of hypersensitivity reactions.
- In the combined therapy using drugs that affect blood clotting, means, strengthen the vascular wall. Shown taking antihistamines, analgesics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory means.
- Vitamin complexes is definitely ascorbic acid, vitamin e to improve blood clotting.
- For treatment of skin and apply a healing ointment and antihistamine.
Additionally shows the specialized hardware and methods of therapy. Vasculitis is prescribed:
- plasmapurez – harvested blood. Biological fluid tsentrifugirujut. Plasma with pathogenic substances are removed and administered to a patient’s own enriched blood cell and platelet mass.
- hemosorption is a method of extrarenal dialysis, in which toxic substances are absorbed upon contact with the adsorbent or enter into a chemical reaction.
Drug therapy is carried out individually and depends on the age of the patient, the reasons for the development of the disease, the severity of hypersensitivity reactions.
Preventive measures and forecast
Prevention of vasculitis are not a set of specific rules. It’s a way of life.
What doctors recommend:
- healthy eating and drinking regime;
- timely treatment of infectious, viral, fungal infestations, which can provoke a hypersensitivity reaction;
- to avoid contact with potential allergens and clear;
- not to self-medicate;
- feasible with physical exercise.
- to avoid hypothermia and overheating, as it reduces the immune protection of the skin and body as a whole.
The prognosis of allergic vasculitis favorable. The disease is treatable, and the patient fully recovers. The lethal outcome is possible only in the absence of adequate therapy and prolonged contact with the allergen.
Roman Gudkov, doctor, medical commentator