Dust is a mixture of microscopic particles. It surrounds any object, human and is a powerful allergen. The penetration of the pathogen in the respiratory tract, the eyes or on the skin of 90% of the human population will trigger sneezing or a slight increase in the production of tear fluid. But the remaining 10% suffer from domestic, industrial dust.
Manifestations of hypersensitivity reactions in children are diverse. Symptoms will correspond to one of the 6 forms of Allergy on the dust particles.
The causes of the disease
The main cause of hypersensitivity reaction is contact with the pathogen. In addition, the lower resistance to micro-particles of dust is influenced by a genetic factor. In the blood of the child is prone to allergic reactions increased the number of immunoglobulin E. These substances are responsible for the development of inflammatory processes in the interaction with the allergen.
The dust contains a large number of particles in the composition. Distinguish between household and professional dust. So quite often out of the reaction does not occur, and in the workplace there are signs of the inflammatory process of allergic nature, and Vice versa.
The disease has a chronic course with periods of improvement and relapses.
Currently allocated 6 forms of hypersensitivity reactions in children.
- Allergic conjunctivitis.
Depending on the kind of reaction developing relevant symptoms. Treatment of all forms of allergic manifestations in children is drugs similar formatactionname.
Allergic conjunctivitis in children
The inflammatory process in the system. Occurs year-round with periods of remission.
Symptoms of the disease:
- conjunctival hyperemia;
- swelling of the eyelids;
- swelling of the upper part of the face;
- lacrimation and rhinorrhea;
- stains gray-yellow iris.
Discomfort develop into dusty and smoky environment. Affected both eyes. It is a diagnostic criterion for allergic reactions.
Allergic rhinitis in children
In this case, the allergen gets into the upper respiratory tract and irritate the lining of the nose.
Symptoms of the disease:
- itching in the nose;
- runny nose – discharge liquid and transparent;
- swelling of the nose, nasal;
- improvement in night time.
If the color of discharge has changed, then the accession of a bacterial infection.
Atopic dermatitis in children
Atopic dermatitis is considered to be a form of food Allergy develops in early childhood. But dust can trigger the development of cutaneous reactions.
Symptoms of allergic eczema:
- itching of the skin;
- peeling and formation of weeping sores;
- increased dryness of the skin;
- inflammation of the skin of the lips and surrounding tissues;
- dermographism white type – the appearance of white spots on the skin after minor contact with a solid object.
- blisters of different sizes, disappearing for 24-30 hours;
- itching in the area of the blister;
- swelling, often painful, should disappear within 3 days;
- spots on the skin red-brown color.
Process is acute and develops in contact with large amounts of allergen. When small amounts of dust urticaria does not occur.
Angioedema and anaphylaxis
This kind of allergic reactions to dust develops very rarely. The main diagnostic feature is the appearance of edema in various parts of the body. Most often it affects the hands and face. Respiratory tract, internal organs not affected.
Symptoms of the pathological process:
- the skin in the area of the swelling hot to the touch;
- develops slowly – up to several days;
- speeds when using corticosteroids;
- may be allergic reaction-type hives.
Such severe pathological hypersensitivity reaction to dust particles almost never occurs.
At the initial stage of diagnosis of physically examination and questioning of the patient. From laboratory analyses indicated only a General study of blood. Allergic nature of the disease to confirm elevated levels of eosinophils.
Other tests – urine, blood biochemistry – uninformative. Because even with severe allergic manifestations, indicators can stay in the norm.
As a diagnostic tool is shown holding allergodil. They are conducted by different methods, but research mechanism is applied to the skin to different allergens and tracking reactions to them. Contraindications to the samples is only inflammatory and purulent processes at the place of intended application of the allergen.
If the pathogen suggesting the dust, then your doctor may suggest introducing the allergen into the nasal passages of the child or on the mucous membrane of the eye.
It is important
All samples from children should be conducted in a medical facility. This will allow the doctor to provide urgent medical care with the development of acute reactions.
What to do if you are allergic to the dust in children
The main thing in the treatment of allergic reactions in children is to avoid contact with the allergen. You need to carry out wet cleaning, to remove the excess “dust” – carpets, curtains, books, soft toys. Replace pillows and blankets from natural materials for a hypoallergenic synthetic fabric. If an allergic reaction develops in children’s institutions, you should think about changing the kindergarten or nurseries.
General treatment method:
- antihistamines – locally and system-wide;
- in severe reactions is corticosteroids topically and injectable;
- atopic dermatitis – ultraviolet radiation, ointments with corticosteroids;
- when rhinitis is the use of salt solutions for clearing nasal mucosa;
- immunotherapy allergen – introduction of micro-pathogen to habituation of the organism.
Treatment of children the first year of life is similar methods, but other drugs, age-appropriate child.
The main preventive measure Allergy to dust is the reduction of allergens. In addition, doctors recommend to take preventive treatment 2 times a year and go on the sea whenever possible. Allergic to dust, does not require adherence to specialized diet.
Hypersensitivity on the dust particles is frustrating. But to stop the reaction, reduce the recurrence of the disease parents are quite capable.
Becic, Julia, doctor, medical commentator