Household allergies the most frequently detected antibodies to house dust from 25 to 30%. It is characterized by multiple allergenicity because the components of house dust is very diverse. Under the microscope seen dozens of its constituent elements: the remnants of food, hair, loose flakes of human skin, dandruff and pet dander, rodents, the secret of the sebaceous glands, saliva, feather birds, pollen, mold spores, microscopic mites, fragments of insects, their excrement, the elements of the chitinous cover. House dust contains fibers of upholstered furniture, clothing, bedding, book dust.
The penetration of the allergen into the body is through the respiratory system. Antigens accumulate in carpets, interior, mattresses, pillows and penetrate easily into the air. The small sizes allow them to be suspended.
Symptoms of Allergy to house dust
Dust Allergy is manifested in such disorders as bronchial asthma, allergic conjunctivitis, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis. The aggravation caused by domestic mites, occur in direct contact and in contact with the protein allergens in the body through the respiratory system.
The symptoms of allergic rhinitis
House dust is the main source of allergic rhinitis. Allergic rhinitis is a chronic inflammation of the mucosal surface of the nose. It is based on the immune response to stimulation with various stimuli. The disease manifests as a complex of symptoms:
- the secret of abundant watery mucus from the nose;
- itching in the nose;
- sneezing, often in the morning;
- nasal congestion;
- less common burning, itching in the nasopharynx, in the area of the sky.
For allergic rhinitis, worsening of the outflow of mucus from the paranasal sinuses appear flaking and redness of the labial groove, on the wings of the nose, nosebleeds due to increased bismarckiana and picking your nose, soreness in the ears, especially when swallowing, loss of hearing, sore throat, dry cough.
Common symptoms: headache, hard to concentrate, lethargy, irritability, malaise, poor appetite, quickly comes fatigue, poor sleep, depressed mood, and sometimes sick from swallowing a lot of mucus, fever (rarely).
In allergic runny nose are disorders of the organs of vision: fear of light, itching, yellowness of the sclera and the eye shell, watery eyes, dark circles under the eyes.
Allergic rhinitis can exist as an independent disease, or begin simultaneously with bronchial asthma. These two diseases have proven a close relationship. The beginning of allergic rhinitis in early childhood is the reason for the formation of allergic asthma in adolescence and in adulthood.
The symptoms of asthma
Bronchial asthma is a chronic inflammation in the bronchial wall, resulting in the influence of causal factors to spasm, edema of the mucosal surface, increased mucus secretion and bronchial obstruction. To identify the disease in typical cases is easy. This episodic shortness of breath, asthma, which are accompanied by wheezing with whistling.
Sometimes a typical attack, the clinical picture is missing. In this case, the symptoms of allergic asthma the following:
- feeling of compression in the chest area;
- loud paroxysmal wheezing with whistling on the exhale, deepening and extending the application of drugs-bronchodilators;
- slight secretion of mucus;
- non-productive cough (infrequent symptom, especially in children).
Symptoms often occur at night or early in the morning. When the diagnosis of asthma is considered a genetic predisposition to allergies, the presence of concomitant diseases (e.g. allergic rhinitis).
The symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis
Allergic conjunctivitis – a disease characterized by inflammation of the conjunctiva of the eyes caused by the causative allergen. Symptoms pathology: edematous eyelids, the feeling of sand in eyes, itching, redness and swelling of the conjunctiva, tearing, fear of light.
If hypersensitivity to house dust, the disease occurs year-round in shape. For allergic conjunctivitis this type characterized by the subacute form of the process unexpressed by outward signs, the combination with bronchial asthma and/or atopic dermatitis, and allergic rhinitis. Often marked by moderate burning of eyes, typically a slight discharge, occasional itching of the eyelids.
The symptoms of atopic dermatitis
Atopic dermatitis manifests itself with skin rashes with intense itching, oozing, inflammation. In chronic forms of gradually developing thickening of skin, peeling, constant infection. The disease often occurs at an early age (under 5 years) and is a precursor to development of allergic lesions of the respiratory system. Adult patients household allergens trigger the disease in 38% of cases.
The main object of hypersensitivity to house dust, household mites are of the family of pyroglyphidae Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. For them, the house dust – habitat. D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae belong to the group of permanent inhabitants of the dust and occupy a dominant position in relation to other species of ticks in residential areas. D. pteronyssinus eat slomannye scales of the epidermis of human skin and the microflora developing on them. D. farinaе still eat the remnants of food that are in the dust.
The highest allergenic activity have not the mites themselves, and their small fragments and larval skins, as well as the waste products of dust mites and fecal particles. Studies have about 20 of mite allergens, mainly represented by the digestive enzymes of the mites. And if to be more exact, the immediate stimuli are proteins with low molecular weight. They are readily soluble in the mucus and other organic liquids.
House dust mites reproduce quickly at high humidity and a temperature of from 17 to 24 °C. the Most high, their number can be found:
- in bed linen of 91.5%;
- in samples of carpet dust – 84, 8%;
- on the bookshelves – 45,8%.
The prevalence of ticks in the house depends on a number of microclimatic characteristics of where you live (humidity, temperature), biotic factors – the presence of yeast and molds, social and household-level rate. Excellent conditions for reproduction of ticks generated by a large gathering of people in a small living space, the occasional wet cleaning.
Microscopic mites of the genus D. Farinae and D. Pteronyssinus often provoke rhinitis and bronchial asthma. To a lesser extent (10 – 14%) triggered the development of atopic dermatitis.
As permanent residents, household mites cause a progressive disease. Scientists surprised to say that the number of ticks, species diversity in places where people live increases.
Dust Allergy in a child
In children from 3 to 7 years allergic to food lose the main role, giving way to inhalant allergies.
On average, house dust contains about 190,6 instances arachnid on 1 gram of dust, with an average humidity of the air in the room is 66%. It is established that the concentration of mite allergens 100 copies per 1 gram of dust causes the development sensitivity in patients with a genetic predisposition. Concentration of 500 copies/gram provokes an asthma attack. It is assumed that the level of accumulation of mite allergens that contribute to the development of sensitivity in a child, several times below.
Allergy to dust provokes asthma in infants, preschoolers. Interaction at an early age with toxic mite allergens develops sensitisation to them later. Bronchial asthma in early childhood and in adolescence more common in boys. Usually the disease is preceded by atopic dermatitis and allergic rhinitis, which subsequently accompany asthma.
Rhinitis allergies often starts in childhood. The symptoms of the disease may occur before, however, they are not always diagnosed. In 68% of children with allergic rhinitis revealed Hyper-reactivity of the bronchial tree – a sharp bronchospasm, dry rales in the lungs (rarely) in response to a very low dose of histamine.
To prevent worsening of the Allergy to dust is envisaged to minimize contact with allergens. Should:
- carry out wet cleaning of the premises;
- frequently wash bed linen at high temperature;
- regularly change the mattress;
- use bedding with synthetic filling.
- remove from the apartment, old furniture, carpets, curtains;
- to buy special protective covers for bedding and upholstered furniture.
Avoid contact with the causal-significant allergens air difficult. However, even selectively executed activities will alleviate the disease, reduce the need for medication. Wet cleaning is what we do every day is important.
When allergic rhinitis is irrigation-elimination therapy. The procedure flushes out nasal mucus, dust particles, promote blood circulation, remove pathogenic agents. This is irrigation of the nasal cavity, wash it and nasopharynx by the method of moving fluid, shower nasal part of the pharynx. Therapy are drugs based on marine water. These preparations contain trace minerals and salt, giving the desired therapeutic effect. Apply the medication with different concentration of NaCl: hypotonic (0.65 percent), isotonic (0.9%) and hypertension (or 2.3%) saline solutions. Decreasing swelling of nose and number of inflammatory mediators, mechanically removes the mucilage.
If you are allergic to house dust it is recommended that allergen-specific immunotherapy (allergogenny): the patient is entered on increasing doses of the causal allergen. The advantages of the method call:
- maintaining prolonged remission after a course of treatment – 3 – 5 years;
- prevention of complications of clinical symptoms of allergies, such as adherence to allergic rhinitis asthma;
- reducing the need for symptomatic treatment of Allergy after 1 to 2 years of therapy;
- prevention of increasing the number of allergens that need to immune response.
Treatment with medicines is different groups of drugs. Most of the recommendations suggests a stepwise treatment plan depending on the type of disease and severity of its occurrence.