Such a unpleasant disease like allergies, affects both adults and children. Especially unpleasant is a type of disease in which allergic reactions are observed in the mouth. This kind of Allergy is not only extremely painful but also quite dangerous for the health of the patient.
Not all inflammatory processes in the oral cavity associated with allergies. They can also cause various bacteria and viruses, diseases of the autoimmune nature of systemic lupus erythematosus and pemphigus vulgaris, as well as exudative erythema multiforme.
In addition, swelling of the mouth, may occur as a manifestation of generalized angioedema.
On the localization of the inflammation are divided into:
- cheilitis the lips and mucous membranes near the mouth,
- glossitis – tongue,
- gingivitis – the gums,
- stomatitis the mucous membrane of the mouth,
- palatinit – soft or hard palate,
- papillitis – papillae of the gums.
In severity and characteristic symptoms of allergic stomatitis can be divided into:
- ulcerative necrosis,
The catarrhal type of allergic stomatitis is characterized by moderate symptoms. Patients usually complain of dry mouth, pain when eating. The disease is also accompanied by burning and itching. In hemorrhagic form upon inspection of the visible small spots of hemorrhage on the mucous membrane. Bullous form is characterized by formation of blisters with exudate. Their destruction can be formed erosion. When ulcerative stomatitis necroses is observed the formation of painful ulcers on the mucosal surface with areas of necrosis. This form of stomatitis is the most severe, it may be accompanied by severe pains, lymph nodes and signs of General intoxication.
How to distinguish an allergic reaction from the inflammatory processes of infectious Genesis? First of all, you need to pay attention to symptoms such as dry mucous membranes and tongue. This symptom is typical for allergic processes. In bacterial infection there is usually increased salivation or it remains in the normal range. When a bacterial infection is also characterized by bad breath, while in allergic stomatitis. On the other hand, for allergic disease characterized by a change of taste or the presence of unpleasant taste in the mouth, which in bacterial stomatitis usually occurs.
Other symptoms of allergic stomatitis also include small lesions in the oral cavity, the formation of small bubbles (vesicles) with severe forms of ulcers and areas of necrosis. The patient experiences severe itching in the mouth area and sometimes severe pain. The process of eating and chewing is also difficult or impossible due to severe pain syndrome.
If untreated, possible massive necrotizing lesions of the mucosa of the oral cavity, the accession of a bacterial infection, which greatly complicate treatment.
In children allergic stomatitis usually runs much heavier than in adults, it has a more acute onset and often accompanied by intoxication of the organism. This is due to a weak immune system of the child and a higher rate of metabolism. This disease can often be diagnosed only at the stage of complications. Often stomatitis in children is accompanied by fever and a large swelling of the surrounding tissues.
The causes of the disease
Factors contributing to the emergence of allergic reactions in the oral cavity are low immunity, Smoking. However, the main causes of the disease specialists refer to the contact in the oral cavity of certain substances causing a pathological reaction of the immune system – allergens.
The mechanism of allergic reactions involves different immune cells – T-lymphocytes and b-lymphocytes, which occurs due to the production of antibodies to foreign agents. Usually an allergic reaction occurs after repeated contact with the allergen in the body that starts the process of release into the blood of mediators of inflammation – histamine.
Allergens can be ingested as a result of:
- the use of chewing gum, certain foods;
- the use of toothpastes, mouthwashes;
- the presence in the oral cavity, dentures, fillings, onlays of allergenic materials;
- chronic infectious diseases of the oral cavity (caries, periodontitis);
As unusual, but still often causes allergies in the mouth, you can specify constant playing wind instruments.
Most often allergic stomatitis occurs after dental surgery, installing new crowns, dentures, braces. The most allergenic material used in dentistry is acrylic. However, the possible allergic and other materials – steel, gold. Allergies can also occur as a result of application of drugs during dental procedures, for example, because of the painkillers.
Allergy around mouth
Allergy around the mouth usually presents as a small skin rash, redness of the skin. Such phenomena are usually accompanied by itching and soreness. The cause of the Allergy around the mouth can be a variety of factors:
- the ingestion of food products containing allergens
- inhalation of dust or pollen;
- exposure to the sun’s rays.
Allergy around mouth requires differentiation from infectious diseases, such as caused by viruses herpes.
Allergy on lips
Inflammation of the lips called halita. Cheilitis can be either infectious or allergic in nature, so cheilitis should not be treated as an independent disease, it is just a symptom. In allergic halite may experience swelling, sores, rash, blisters, peeling lips. Typically inflammation accompanied by itching. Eating is very difficult because of the pain. Cause allergic cheilitis can be the use of cosmetics (e.g., lipstick), non-Smoking.
How to treat Allergy on lips
Methods of treatment of allergic cheilitis differs from the methods of treatment Halitov infectious origin. First of all, should avoid contact with the allergen, of course, if it is detected. In many cases, the mere elimination of the allergen can cope with the situation. If this method fails, it is recommended to use antihistamines or anti-inflammatory drugs. Treatment should be under medical supervision.
Allergic to the language
Inflammatory processes in the language are called glossitis. He may have an infectious or allergic in nature. In the latter case the tongue usually becomes dry and smooth, it is well imprinted with teeth marks.
It is necessary to differentiate allergic stomatitis infectious, and autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus or erythema multiforme exudative. In autoimmune diseases are usually observed lesions of other organs, or signs of intoxication of the whole organism, as these pathologies are systemic in nature. When the multiforme exudative erythema can be observed not only stomatitis but also a rash on the hands.
In some cases, the doctor can establish by questioning the patient, the cause of Allergy, in other cases, tests to identify the allergen, for example, skin tests. For the differentiation of bacterial diseases is carried out biochemical analysis of saliva or mucus of the mucous membrane. There is a great importance and consideration of medical history, the presence of cases of allergic reactions in the past.
General principles of treatment of allergic stomatitis
First of all, you need to eliminate contact with the allergen. It can be some medicine, food, toothpaste. If the Allergy is a result of the installation of any dental structures like crowns, dentures, etc., then you need to go to the dentist to have it picked up less allergenic material.
If Allergy symptoms will continue to occur, it is necessary to resort to medical methods. The main category of medications Allergy – antihistamines. They are able to block the negative effects of inflammatory mediators – histamines. Basic drugs – Suprastin, Tavegil, Diphenhydramine, Cetirizine, loratadine. Can be prescribed hormonal drugs with prednisone. Also to prevent secondary bacterial infection can be used for rinsing the mouth fluids with antibacterial action, for example, a solution or chlorhexidine miramistina. There are also rinsing the mouth with decoction of herbs with antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties – chamomile, sage. With strong pain syndrome requires taking painkillers.