The blood supply of the spinal cord

For the normal functioning of the Central nervous system blood supply of the spinal cord should be sufficient and without any violations. Because it ensures the supply of the nervous tissue with nutrients and oxygen. Also, when normal blood flow is metabolism and excreted products of metabolic processes. To ensure all these processes the spinal cord has a complex anatomy.

It should be noted that the spinal cord responsible for muscle contractions that move the joint. If there is dysfunction of the joints, the problem may disappear due to lack of blood supply to the cells of the spinal cord.

Спинной мозгDiagram of the arteries of the spinal cord is quite complex, as they are connected with a large number of anastomoses. It’s a network that literally twist around the surface of the spinal cord. It’s called Vasa corona. Anatomy and structure of its complex. From this ring extend blood vessels, which are located perpendicular to the main trunks, they enter the spinal canal through the vertebrae. In the middle between these barrels also have numerous anastomoses. Of them and formed capillary network. It is characteristic that the gray matter has a more dense network of capillaries than the white matter.

Vessels

The blood supply of the spinal cord is due to:

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  • vertebral artery;
  • spinal arteries – their 3;
  • small vessels soft shell CM;
  • segmental arteries.

Vertebral artery

Vertebral artery is a large vessel, the lumen of which is 4 mm and more. Vertebral artery enters the spinal column in place 6 vertebrae of the cervical. This vessel supplies blood to the upper part of the spinal cord and several parts of the brain. Therefore, the anatomy of the brain and spinal cord is always considered together.

From the vertebral artery depart the branches of the spinal artery. They go in the spinal canal. One of these structures passes through the front surface. Moving away from her smaller vessels that is localized in the center of the spinal cord. And then the blood rich in oxygen and nutrients, enters the capillaries that are directly saturate the cells of the nervous tissue.

2 spinal arteries run along the rear surface of the CM. They have less clearance than in the front. The blood supply of these two arteries takes place on the same principle. But they have one feature – the branches extending from them, have a blood relationship with the branches of the anterior artery. Thus, a network of vessels that envelop the spinal cord.

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Кровоснабжение спинного мозга

Anterior spinal artery is an unpaired vessel, which includes various segmental branches from different arteries. Perforating the artery away from the front and next to each segment, SEE there is a crack which includes these vessels. And then they enter the parenchyma of the spinal cord.

The blood network is also associated with other vessels, which are localized over the spinal column. These vessels supply blood to mainly the white matter of CM.

3 spinal artery is necessary for proper blood supply of the spinal cord, but they are not enough. This is because the further away from the artery of the cervical spine. The less becomes their clearance and increasing the resistance of blood flow.

In the spine, located below the neck, for this reason, there is an additional blood supply. These additional vessels depart from the branches of the aorta. They are called radicular-spinal.

In the thoracic these vessels receive blood from branches of the vertebral and the ascending arteries. And in the lower parts of the spinal cord receives blood from the arteries of the intervertebral and lumbar types. Such vessels pass through the openings between the vertebrae and enter the network that envelops the spinal cord.

The intercostal artery has a branch called the dorso-spinal artery. She, in turn, is divided into 2 radicular-spinal artery – the front and rear. Their anatomy is that already through the hole between the vertebrae and they are held together with nerve roots.

Blood supply areas

Inside the spinal cord is supplied by the type of division into 3 zones. The first area includes most of the gray matter. Namely, it is a gelatinous substance, front, side and rear (only base) horns, the columns of Clark. These structures occupy approximately 2/3—4/5 of the diameter of the spinal cord. Their location individually for each person. Also, this area includes part of the white matter. The structure of white matter – front and rear (deep and ventral divisions) of the cords. The first area to feed on blood, mainly from branches of the anterior spinal artery type.

The second zone includes such structures as the posterior horn and the rope, but in the posterior horns it is only their external departments. In this area, the beam Gaulle is supplied more and a beam Burdah less. These beams are fed from branches of the anastomotic type, which extend from the posterior spinal artery.

The third zone includes structures such as the superficial divisions of the white matter. And provide its regional artery.

Reticulonodular vessels

Reticulonodular artery of the spinal cord – the blood vessels that supply blood to areas of the spinal cord located below Позвоночникthe vertebrae C3—C4. Each of these vessels divides into 2 branches: the descending and the ascending. This division is dichotomous type. These branches, in turn, are also connected with the same branches other reticulonodular of the arteries that are situated on top and bottom.

Of these vessels have formed anastomotic channels. They go along the spinal cord – 1 front and 2 rear. This is anterior and posterior spinal artery. During these 3 tracts are areas with the opposite flow. These areas are in places where reticulonodular artery is divided into branches.

Reticulonodular vessels can be from 2 to 27. The front can be 6-28, and the number comes back to 15-20.

The structure of the vessels of the spinal cord may be the main and the loose. When the trunk type reticulonodular arteries them less to 5 front and 8 rear. But for the loose type is characterized by a larger number of arteries – to the front 12 and rear 22 more.

The largest reticulonodular vessels are located in the Department srednekan CM. One of them is the artery of the cervical enlargement. And they can be localized in lower thoracic and verkhnepashino departments. These include the artery of the lumbar enlargement of Laporta and a large front artery of Adamkewicz.

Also reticulonodular major arteries include:

  • Lower artery Desprez-Gotteron. It is not at all, and approximately 15% of people.
  • Top additional artery, which is located at the level of D2-D. the artery is only when the main structure of the blood supply.

All the above arteries is not at all. Sometimes there are only a few of them and it is not considered pathology. And sometimes they have everything, but their diameter is much smaller. Another individual is the location of the entrance of these arteries. That is, in the spinal canal, they can enter into the different segments. For example, the vessel Damkevica can enter in the field of thoracic vertebra 9 and below up to 2 lumbar vertebra.

Liquor and pahinui granulation

Liquor

The blood supply of the spinal cord has its own characteristics. These include the fact that the blood directly in its original form misses the spinal cord. Blood runs through a lot of shells and branches and in this passage she moves to another state. That is, it splits and those nutrients that it has come in the cerebrospinal fluid. It delivers them to the spinal cord.

The CSF is cerebrospinal fluid, which circulates between the spinal cord and the brain. This fluid is produced by choroid plexuses located in the ventricles of the brain. The CSF fills the ventricles and then enters the spinal canal. This material completely surrounds CM. That is, according to its structure, it is in limbo. The CSF protects the spinal cord, preventing damage as it creates a depreciation. But he also carries nutrients, which are evenly absorbed into the soft tissue of the brain.

And already the outflow of CSF into venous sinuses is due to the granulation that occurs in the arachnoid membrane.

Neuromediatory

Neurotransmitters also play a very important role in the blood supply of the spinal cord. These structures also facilitate the excretion from the blood nutrients. Namely, their function is to formulate a secret. This is due to the synthesis of protein compounds and polypeptides.

Any violations in the process of blood supply of the spinal cord are connected with neiromediatorne. Or rather, with their number and activity. They are located in the cells of the nervous tissue.

Violations

Hypotension – low blood pressure

There are several reasons why violations occur blood supply of the spinal cord. It can be various disorders and diseases of the cardiovascular system. Such factors may include:

  • hypotension – low blood pressure;
  • heart disease;
  • atherosclerotic vascular disease;
  • thrombosis of blood vessels;
  • aneurysm of the arteries of the spinal cord.

Quite often the interruption of the blood supply of the spinal cord occurs for 2 reasons. These include osteochondrosis and atherosclerosis. These pathologies are very common today, even among young people.

More causes circulatory disorders of this important structure of the body can be diseases of the locomotor apparatus. Such cause often diagnosed.

It is very important that the blood supply was full, as each vessel carries a very important role in the functioning of the CM. But quite often there are various circulatory disorders. Blood flow slows down due to the strong spasm of the muscles, hernia, growths of bone, growth of tumors, the presence of scars. Also by displacement may be due to fractures of the spine, to block the blood supply to the bone may shatter.

Blood flow to the brain and spinal cord is disturbed if retarded or completely overlaps the vertebral artery, especially in the cervical spine. Since it provides blood these 2 important structures of the human body.

Spinal cord injury

Another factor which may occur circulatory disorders of CM is iatrogenic reasons. This is when violations occur due to a variety of diagnostic studies or surgical intervention. For example, these include misconceptions of the lumbar puncture, chiropractic.

Critical conditions include hemorrhage due to aneurysm, fracture. In this state there is a strong likelihood that there will be death of the patient.

Hematomyelia

The disease is an acute circulatory disturbance of the spinal cord. Often happens all the same inhibition of blood flow and hemorrhage is less common. That is, hematomyelia is the destruction of the vessel wall, localized in the spinal canal, thus there is hemorrhage into the spinal cord. This happens due to various mechanical damage.

For Central nervous system formation in the spinal cord hematomas bears a very great danger. The reasons for this defeat can be not only mechanical effects but also tumors, infectious diseases, disorders of blood clotting, phlebitis. Also, there are cases where bleeding occurs due to certain medical procedures.

The complexity of this disease is that no external factors no. Symptoms:

  • violations of sensitivity;
  • coordination disorder;
  • paralysis of the limbs;
  • involuntary urination and defecation.

For the detection of acute circulatory disorders of the spinal cord conduct magnetic resonance and computed tomography. Still an important study is the analysis of cerebrospinal fluid.

Venous system

The venous system in the spinal cord is very well developed. This is due to the huge number of blood vessels that nourish his blood. The main venous trunks are the same as arterial trunks, that is, in parallel. These trunks are connected with the veins, which are localized in the base of the skull. Thus, a single continuous tract. Anatomy of the venous system is similar to the arterial system.