The spinal cord is in the spine, in the cavity. In turn, the cavity forming bodies and processes of the vertebrae of all departments. The beginning of the brain is the brain of the person at the bottom of the occipital hole.
Ends with the brain in the region of the first and second lumbar vertebrae. This is the place the brain cone is markedly reduced, it comes down terminal thread. The upper section of such filaments contain elements of the nervous tissue.
Brain education, which descends below the second lumbar vertebra represented in the quality of education of the three-layer connective tissues. Terminal filament ends in the coccyx, but rather, on the second vertebra where there is a fusion with the periosteum.
The spinal nerve endings are infused with a terminal filament, forming a specific beam. Note that the spinal cord of an adult human has a length of 40-45 cm and weighs 37 g.
Thickening and furrows
Significant compaction of the spinal canal have only two divisions — vertebrae of the cervical and lumbosacral.
That’s where the highest concentration of nerve endings which are responsible for the correct functioning of the upper and lower extremities. So spinal cord injury may have a negative impact on the coordination and movements of the person.
Because the spinal canal is symmetrical halves, through them are the specific boundaries of separation — anterior median fissure and sulcus posterior.
Of the median fissure on both sides is the front of the lateral sulcus. It originates in motor sport.
Thus, the groove separates the lateral and anterior cords of the spinal cord. In addition, the back also has a lateral sulcus, which also functions as a separation boundary.
The roots and substance of their mutual arrangement
The spinal cord has gray matter, which contains nerve fibers called the anterior roots. It should be noted that the posterior roots of the spinal cord are presented in formations of appendages of cells with high sensitivity, which penetrate into the Department.
These cells form a spinal unit, which is located between the anterior and posterior roots. An adult has about 60 such roots, which are located along the entire length of the channel.
This division of the Central nervous system has a segment — a part of the body which is located between the two pairs of nerve roots. Note that this body is much shorter than the column of the spine, so the location of the segment and its number won’t match the vertebrae.
The gray matter of the spinal canal
Gray matter is located in the middle of a white substance. In its Central part there is the Central channel that populates the CSF.
This channel together with the ventricles of the brain and space, which is located between a three-layer shells circulate the spinal fluid.
Substances which secretes the cerebrospinal fluid and its reverse absorption is based on the same processes as obtaining spinal fluid elements, which are located in the ventricles of the brain.
The study of the fluid that bathes the spinal cord, the specialists use to diagnose a variety of pathologies, which progress in the Central sector of the nervous system.
This category can be attributed to the effects of various infectious, inflammatory, parasitic and neoplastic diseases.
The gray matter of the spinal cord is formed from grey pillars, which are connected by a transverse plate — spike gray, inside of which noticeable the opening of the Central channel.
I must say that these plates have two: the front and the bottom. In the context of spinal cord grey columns resemble a butterfly.
In addition, in this section you can see the tabs, they are called horns. They are divided into broad pair — they are on the front, and a narrow twin — located in the rear area.
The front horns are the neurons responsible for movement capability. The spinal cord and anterior roots are composed of neurites, which represent the processes of the motor neurons.
Neurons of the anterior horn form the nucleus of the spinal cord. In humans, five of them. From them there are processes of nerve cells towards skeletal muscle.
Functions of the spinal cord
The spinal cord performs two main functions: reflex and conductive. Acting as a reflex center and the brain has the ability to perform complex motor and autonomic reflexes.
In addition, sensitive ways it is associated with the receptors, and less sensitive to all internal organs and skeletal muscles in General.
Spinal canal all of your ways to connect the periphery with the brain through two-way communication. Sensitive impulses through the spinal cord come from the brain, passing it information about all changes in all spheres of the human body.
Implications — through downward paths impulses from the brain are transmitted to the low-sensitive neurons of the spinal cord and activate or control over their work.
The spinal cord has nerve centers that are working. The fact that the neurons of these centers are associated with the receptors and bodies. They provide mutual work of the cervical and other segments of the spine and internal organs.
Such movement neurons of the spinal cord give rise to all muscles of the body, the limbs and the diaphragm as a signal for functioning. It is very important to prevent damage to the spinal cord, as in this case, the consequences and complications of working with the body can be very sad.
In addition to motor neurons of the spinal canal contains the sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic centers. Lateral horns of the thoracic and lumbar spinal regions are the centers of the nervous system that are responsible for the work:
- heart muscle;
- sweat glands;
- of the digestive system.
Conduction function of the spinal cord can be performed through the ascending and descending paths which lie in the white matter of the brain.
These routes connect the separate elements of the spinal cord with each other and with the brain.
Spinal cord injury or any injury causing spinal shock. It manifests itself as a sharp reduction of reflex excitability of the nervous centre, in their slow work.
During spinal shock those irritants that evoked reflexes to action become ineffective. The consequences of the damage the spinal canal of the cervical and any other division can be the following:
- loss of skeletal-motor and autonomic reflexes;
- reduces blood pressure;
- lack of vascular reflexes;
- violation of the acts of defecation and micchi.
Pathology of the spinal cord
Myelopathy is a term that includes a variety of spinal cord injury for any reason. If the inflammation of the spinal cord, or damage is a consequence of the development of some disease, myelopathy has an appropriate name, for example, vascular or diabetic.
These are all diseases that have more or less similar symptoms and manifestations, but the treatment may be different.
The reasons for the development of myelopathy can be of various traumas and injuries, the main causes include:
- the development of a herniated disc;
- the displacement of the vertebrae, often, a shift in the cervical;
- trauma and injury to the different nature of appearance;
- the blood circulation;
- a stroke of the spinal cord;
- inflammation of the spinal cord and the vertebrae;
- complications after puncture of the spinal canal.
It is important to say that the most common abnormality is a cervical myelopathy. Her symptoms may be especially hard, and the consequences are often impossible to predict.
But this does not mean that the disease any other Department shall be ignored. Most diseases of the spinal cord can make a person handicapped without appropriate and timely treatment.
Symptoms manifestations of the disease
The spinal cord is the main conduit that allows the brain to work with the entire human body, to ensure the work of all its structures and organs. Disruption of such channel may have these symptoms:
- paralysis of the limbs, which is almost impossible to remove with the help of medication, there are severe pain;
- the decrease in the level of sensitivity can be observed as a decline in one species or several at a time;
- the improper functioning of the pelvic organs;
- uncontrolled muscle spasm of limbs — arises from the uncontrolled functioning of the nervous cells.
Possible complications and consequences of the development of such diseases in which the spinal cord will suffer more, may be:
- the process of malnutrition of the skin in people who are long stay in the supine position;
- the stiff joints of paralyzed limbs that cannot be repaired;
- the development of paralysis of the limbs and body;
- incontinence of feces and urine.
With regard to prevention of myelitis, the main activities include:
- vaccine preventive measures of infectious diseases that can trigger the development of myelitis;
- performing regular physical activity;
- regular diagnosis;
- timely treatment of diseases that can cause myelitis as a complication, for example, measles, mumps, polio.
The brain spins is an integral part of the normal functioning of the body. Any disease or injury have a negative impact not only on the motor abilities of a person, but on all internal organs.
Therefore it is very important to recognize the symptoms of damage to timely and correct treatment.