The essence of the spinal conducting mission
Pathways – a special neural fibers that transmit signals of a certain kind of different brain centers.
Medical practice it is customary to differentiate three groups of the above fibers.
- Associative. Intended for the connection of the cells of the gray matter of the diverse segments of education, close to the gray matter, their own special beams (front, laterally, rear).
- Commissural. The function of these fibers is to connect gray matter of both hemispheres, and also similar and located equidistant nerve centers of both halves of the brain to correlate and harmonize their work.
- Projection. These fibers connect the overlying and underlying brain areas. They are responsible for projecting to the brain paintings of the world, as on a Board or TV screen.
Projection fibers vary depending on the orientation of the sent impulses to ascending and descending pathways.
For delivery to the brain signals, which is manifested as a result of the influence on human organism of various factors and phenomena in the external environment, respond to the following three groups of ascending pathways.
- Exteroceptive — put pulses from the two types of receptors.
- The pulses supplied by the exteroretseptora. This refers to the temperature, tactile and pain signals.
- Impulses of the senses: ability to see, to hear, to distinguish odors and tastes.
- Proprioceptive — responsible for the impulses from the organs of motion and muscles.
- Interoceptive is intended to conduct impulses, which are sent to the internal organs.
Descending pathways pass signals from lower centers and the cortex to the nuclei of the brain, as well as located the front of the motor nuclei of the spinal horns. To descending pathways include several systems of fibres.
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- Cortical and spinal cord is responsible for the mission of the movement.
- Tegmental-spinal cord, called differently by tectospinal is projected downward of the nervous system.
- Preddverno-spinal cord — responsible for proper smooth functioning of the vestibular apparatus.
- Mesh cord, otherwise referred to as reticular-spinal way, provides the proper level of tone of the muscle tissues.
In addition, the conducting tracts of brain and spinal cord differencesbut also performed tasks.
- Motor pathways responsible for reflex reactions. Their task is to pass “pointers” from the brain to the spinal cord and then to muscles. Thanks to the coordinated work of these pathways is the level of movement coordination.
- Sensitive way to help in the recognition of pain, temperature and its fluctuations, tactile sensations.
Nerve fibers guarantor of the indissoluble relationship of the brain with the spinal cord, and through it – with all the bodies systems. Fast transmission of appropriate signals ensures the consistency of all movements of the body, except for the substantial efforts made by the man himself. The conductive path formed by the bundles of nerve cells.
The types of pathways and directions
Ascending pathways of the spinal cord will recognize the impulses received from the various human vital organs, and their subsequent provision of the “center”.
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Descending pathways forward “guidance” immediately to certain internal organs, various glands, and muscles. Signals and pulses in this case are transmitted through the spinal neural connections.
Fast and accurate data transfer is guaranteed thanks to double during spinal tracks.
Localization paths in the course of their movement
Ascending and descending lines connect the spinal horns with the cerebral cortex. Spinal tracts represent nerve bundles and tissues that are in the relevant areas of the brain. Pulses can be transmitted only in one direction. The location of the spinal pathways demonstrates the scheme in the upstream video.
Ascending spinal conducting paths and their characteristics
Body first the nerve cells that act as transmitters of various types of spinal sensitivity, occur in the relevant brain sites. The axons of the cell data nodes enter into the spinal part. Among them there are a couple of groups.
The medial group is moving in the direction of the rear cord. In this place each fiber is divided into a few branches. They are called ascending and descending. A certain number of the above branches when moving up and down to form tufts in different spinal segments and points.
Lateral group moves to the edge, and then to the rear pole gray matter to contact with the cells of the rear kind.
The ascending path of the spinal cord, otherwise also known as centrifugal or afferent to their characteristics and the direction of motion is described in detail in table 1.
|№ p/p||View of the upstream path||Features|
|1||Rear Cerebro-cerebellar||The task of this direct cerebellar path includes the conduction of impulses to the cerebellum from muscle receptors. Spinal unit – the first refuge of neurons. Refuge is the second of the neurons is the entire surface of the spinal cord in the thoracic nucleus. These neurons move toward the outside. When he reached the posteroexternal spinal Department, they fold up and follow the near side of the spinal cord. Then they are sent to the cortex of the cerebellar worm.|
|2||Anterior spinal cerebellar||This tract is also designed to conduct impulses to the cerebellum from muscle receptors. Spinal unit – breeding ground of the first neurons. And the medial intermediate nucleus of the area is the habitat of the bodies of the second neurons. Their fiber is sent to the lateral cords of both parties. Reaching pregnenalone departments of cords, fibers will be located over the rear spinal-cerebellar tract. Wrapping up crossing the bridge and making the optic chiasm, fibers reach of the cerebellar vermis, completing the track.|
|3||Senority||This thermal conductive may starts in the cells of the rear horns. After crossing the axons of these cells move upward along the spinal surface. The destination of spannering tract are, respectively, the kernel of the olive. On the above tract in the brain receives information from receptors of muscles and skin.|
|4||The anterior spinal thalamic||Responsible for transmitting signals regarding tactile sensitivity.||Spinal ganglia – the area of the location of the bodies of the first neurons. The way of the second neuron crosses to the opposite side in the direction of the cords. Fiber data paths, bypassing the medulla oblongata, the bridge, and cerebral legs, subsequently reaching the thalamus. Still others neurons are in the thalamus, following directly to the cerebral cortex.|
|5||Lateral spinal-thalamic||Posts signals about temperature and pain.|
|6||Spinal reticular||The elements in the specified tract are fibers from both the spinal thalamic tracks.||These two paths pass through the lateral spinal cords, ending in the plate srednemirovoj roof.|
|8||A thin beam||This beam transmits “the instructions” sent by the lower parts of the human body along with lower limbs lower 4th thoracic segment. Once in the medulla, the beam begins to contact with their own nuclear cells.||Muscle deliver “instructions” to both beams. The first neurons in the above paths lie in certain spinal nodes. They move to the nuclei of the medulla oblongata. Two tubercle – the essence of the second neurons of the respective beams. Their axons when driving reach the opposite side. There they form a delicate cross, and then move to the thalamus, already being part of the medial loop. Data fiber bundles come into direct contact with talasniemi cells. The processes of these neurons and are sent directly to the brain.|
|9||Wedge-shaped beam||It is formed from fibers that inicializirati movement in the cells of the spinal nodes, and end in the wedge-shaped tubercle.|
All the descending paths of the spinal cord with their detailed characteristics and the rate of movement demonstrated in table 2.
|№ p/p||View of downstream path||Features|
|1||Lateral cortical-spinal cord called the lateral corticospinal or pyramidal basic crossover.||Part of this path includes a large proportion of the fibers of the pyramidal system. The side path is localized in the lateral cord. In the course of your way the fibers gradually become thinner. The lateral fibers conduct signals that cause the conscious action of man.||The lateral fibers conduct signals that cause the conscious action of man.|
|2||Front cortical and spinal cord, called corticospinal otherwise, direct or supercriminal pyramid.||This path lies in the anterior spinal cord. Like the lateral pyramidal way part of the direct pyramidal tract cell axons include motor cops hemisphere, though they are located here ipsilateral. At rst, these axons are reduced to “own” the segment. Then, as part of the anterior spinal adhesions, they are forwarded to the opposite side, ending in moneyreagh the anterior horn.|
|3||Krasnodare cord or rubrospinal.||Starting in the red nucleus of the spinal cord, this tract descends subsequently to the motor nerve cells of the anterior horns. This pathway is responsible for the unconscious transmission of motor signals.|
|4||Tegmental-spinal cord-otherwise known as tectospinal.||It is localized in the anterior cord near the front of the pyramid by. This tract starts on the roof of the midbrain. The same mononeuronal the anterior horns are the final item. Tectospinal tract ensures the implementation of protective reflex responses to stimuli of sight and hearing.|
|5||Preddverno and spinal cord, called differently vestibulospinal.||This path is localized in the anterior spinal cord. Vestibular nucleus of the bridge are its beginning, and the front horns spinal – ending. The balance of the human body is ensured due to pulse transmission vestibulospinal tract.|
|6||The reticulo-spinal or reticulospinal.||This path provides a transmission from the reticular formation excitatory signals to spinal nerve cells.|
To understand the neurophysiology pathways in the human spinal cord, you will need to briefly acquainted with the anatomy of the spine. Its structure is the spinal cord a bit like a cylinder, covered with muscle tissue on all sides. Pathways control the function of internal organs and all organ systems and the functions performed by the body. Injuries, different damages, and other ailments of the spinal cord can in some way reduce the conductivity. Incidentally, the conductivity may even break down entirely, due to the death of neurons. Full loss of conductivity of the spinal is characterized by paralysis of the signals, which is manifested in the complete absence of sensation in the limbs. It is very fraught with problems with the internal organs responsible for the damage of the nervous cells. So, injuries and other ailments of the lower spinal parts are often characterized by incontinence and even spontaneous defecation.
Medical treatment will consist in the appointment of drugs that prevent the death of brain cells and additionally improves the blood flow in the damaged spinal areas.
As additional treatment, stimulate the neurons and also aid in maintaining muscle tone may be assigned to conduct electrical impulses.
Surgery recovery spinal conductivity are carried out in specialised spinal clinics.
If necessary, your doctor may prescribe the use of the following folk remedies.
- Apitherapy. Bee stings effectively restore the conductivity of the efferent tracts. So, the venoms of these insects, penetrating into the damaged areas, provide them with extra blood flow. If the cause of the pathology of the spine become sciatica, growing hernia and other like diseases – apitherapy will be a great addition to traditional treatment.
- Herbalism. Drug charges are assigned on the normalization of blood circulation and improvement of metabolism.
- Hirudotherapy. By leeching, you receive the ability to eliminate stagnation is inevitable attributes of vertebral pathologies.
Degenerative changes occurred almost immediately lead to the violation of the conduction and reflex activity. Dying neurons are quite difficult to restore. The disease often may develop rapidly, significantly compromising the conductivity. Therefore, to address to doctors for medical aid is desirable for the early detection of signs of disease.