In the center of the rod is the spinal canal, filled the spinal cord. Inside the channel there are restrictions in the form of vertebral arches and ligaments. The twists and sector of the human spine have specific functions. In the channel there are 31 pairs of spinal holes. Through these holes the nerves and their endings.
The structure of the spine and its functions
The components of spine in addition to all the vertebrae connected to each other, is the area of the coccyx and the sacrum, bonded by cartilage and ligaments. Anatomy of the spine is fairly simple. It consists of 31-37 vertebrae, their number varies depending on the number of vertebrae in the coccyx. The length of the spine at a young age a few more. For example, in boys its length is in the range from 72 to 76 cm and the girls from 68 to 71 cm With age, the spine shortens by approximately 4-8 see Such shortening is the result of atrophy of the discs between the vertebrae.
The main functions of the spine:
Attached to the spine the entire skeleton (extremities, skull, hip and chest). He is responsible for the correct location of all internal organs. All vertebrae are connected by:
- the facet joints;
- of the intervertebral discs.
Function of the spine are distributed so that each connecting element has its purpose.
- Ligaments are designed to connect the vertebrae.
- Through tendon paravertebral muscles attached to the spine.
- The mobility of the vertebrae is provided by the facet joints.
- Depreciation and adjustment of the load is carried by the intervertebral discs.
The status of the disks and vertebrae affects the health and strength of the whole vertebral system. In the case of their deformation can occur diseases of the ligaments, tendons and muscles, thus there is a high risk of diseases of the musculo-ligamentous corset.
Division of the spine into zones
The spine has the following departments:
There is no single classification of the vertebrae, each Department is denoted by a symbol. In each section, the vertebrae are numbered sequentially.
The cervical spine consists of seven vertebrae, which are numbered starting with C1 and ending with C7. The occipital part of the skull is considered to be zero vertebra.
In the thoracic 12 vertebrae numbered from T1 to T12.
In the lumbar of 5 vertebrae numbered from L1 to L5.
The vertebrae of the lumbosacral received the letter S, there are only 5. They are numbered from S1 to S5.
The most irregular is the division of the coccyx, the number of vertebrae in it in different people may differ and vary from 3 to 5. They are numbered Co1 — Co5.
The structure of the various divisions of the spine
Depending on the intended purpose and functionality, each spine has its own structure and features of the structure.
The cervical spine has the greatest mobility. It is achieved due to the unique structure of the first two vertebrae, which are responsible for the ability of turning the head in different directions. As force when cornering is minimal, then the vertebrae themselves are narrow and have small body sizes. This spine is often diagnosed disc herniation or osteochondrosis.
The largest size is thoracic. It is less movable in comparison with other sectors. It includes a lot of organs, including to it is the attachment of the ribs. For this reason, the vertebrae of this Department are more massive and have large body. As this Department is little involved in the movement, the formation of hernias it is very rare.
The biggest burden falls on the lumbar, which is reflected in the size of the vertebrae of this segment. Here the vertebrae have the largest diameter and height.
Sacral segment has the unique features of the structure due to the fact that all of its vertebrae are one. They fused into a single structure, and the largest are 2 of the first vertebra of this sector, the next vertebrae in size somewhat smaller. In the vertebrae of this segment are often observed:
Sanctification is a phenomenon involving fusion of the 5th lumbar vertebra to the 1st sacral. Globalizacija this phenomenon of separation of the 1st and 2nd sacral vertebrae. These processes are not considered pathology.
In the event of a pathology usually suffer both the most vulnerable Department: sacral and lumbar, as in flexion of the lower back the majority of the load is on these two divisions.
Physiological characteristics of the spine and their role
Lateral projection of the spine allows you to see the picture where the spine looks as a whole. Physiological curves of the human spine is quite in harmony with the entire structure of his skeleton. The spine is not a straight line, and looks like a guitar, with smooth transitions from one segment to another. His curved and smooth thanks to her is easing the load on individual vertebral zone. This useful curvature similar to a spring, and may, under certain loads, then shrink, then stretch.
Curves of the spine similar to the $ symbol or English letters S. Protruding forward curve called a lordosis and back — kyphosis. Such a structure is observed in an adult, but infants are still lacking lordosis and kyphosis and the spine looks at this somewhat differently. Curves in different spinal areas have different direction. For example, the arching of the cervical and lumbar has forward direction, hence, they are respectively called the lordosis of the respective sector. But the formation curves of the spine the thoracic, sent back, therefore, there is a thoracic kyphosis.
Thanks to the curves of the spinal column, it is able to courageously withstand the tremendous load, which is almost 20 times the load of a concrete column of similar dimensions.
If the function of the spine is broken and there is any pathology, when there is excessive increase of the curves, or smoothing, in such cases is often diagnosed scoliosis or degenerative disc disease.
On the spine of an adult is 4 bend through which maintained the correct posture. Due to the lordosis and kyphosis is supported by the elasticity of the spine during physical activity is a uniform distribution of the entire load on every Department. If you compare with a concrete post, then it can not adequately respond to the aggressive influence of external factors and eventually collapses.
Under different circumstances the function of the spine are modified with bends can purchase obviously painful and distorted pathological forms. The back can purchase slouch, the chest may become more flat, and the shoulders are lowered. Such a shape of the spine talking about the kyphosis of the thoracic. If you encounter this pathology at a young age can talk about the manifestation of the disease.
At first the slouch looks like a cosmetic defect, but after a time there is pain in the back that tend to rise. It is a compression of the intervertebral discs and the deformation of the bodies of the vertebrae themselves.
In the elderly with decreased muscle tone this condition can be called conditionally normal, but if the condition of the spine is noted in a teenager, you need to sound the alarm so as not to miss the time to eliminate the negative factors.