A cyst of the prostate is diagnosed more often in men older than 50 years and is demarcated cavity filled with liquid contents.
As a rule, cysts in the prostate are benign in nature and rarely zlokacestvennoe. Pathology exposed to men of any age, but the correlation — the older, the greater the risk of developing of cystic neoplasms.
Symptoms are non-specific, transrectal palpation of the prostate does not establish the diagnosis.
Often used to diagnose TRUS (transrectal ultrasound). If there is a suspicion of a malignant process, perform an MRI, allowing to assess the relation of the cyst (tumor) to the nearby tissues.
What are cysts of the prostate
Isolated congenital and acquired cystic neoplasms, true and false, inflammatory and non-inflammatory origin, complicated and uncomplicated.
Congenital cysts, in turn, are divided into utricle cyst of the prostate, Müller duct, the seminal vesicle, the ejaculatory duct duct.
To purchased include benign cystic hyperplasia, parasitic and retention cysts, cysts of the ejaculatory duct duct, abscess and cystic cancer.
Cysts of the prostate are diagnosed at the Sonograms due to the typical location and characteristic shape. Sometimes to establish a definitive diagnosis is carried out transrectal biopsy under ultrasound control.
Most urologists face prostate cysts utricle, which arises due to its distension. Shape — pear-shaped or teardrop-shaped, the contours smooth. The base of the seed tubercle not speak. When aspirinova content get yellowish fluid without spermatozoa.
To the formation of cysts Müller duct causes the lack of reduction (disappearance) of the duct in the process of embryogenesis.
Cyst Müller duct is connected to the seminal colliculus, contributes to the stretching of the prostatic capsule, may contain concretions and accumulations of salts.
Congenital cysts of the deferent duct and ejaculatory duct are diagnosed rarely, and in most cases, combined with other anomalies. The cause of the atresia – a congenital lack of natural exhaust vents.
Typically, the patient presents with complaints after the start of active sexual life, sometimes the only sign of a calcified cyst – appearance of blood in semen. Novoobrazovaniya can have communication with the bladder, which is manifested in hematuria. The contents of an inactive sperm.
Benign cystic hyperplasia of the prostate, the formation of many small cysts in the transitional zone of the prostate. This leads to compression of the Central and peripheral areas.
PI ejaculatory duct cysts duct ultrasound examination shows extension of the seminal vesicle on the affected side.
A large part of the ejaculatory duct cysts duct occurs due to obstruction. Usually they are in place the expected passage of the ejaculatory duct duct in
Retention cysts of the prostate are caused by dilatation of glandular lobules with acquired blockage of small ducts. They can appear in any locus of the prostate, often in the periphery.
Despite the fact that malignancy in the prostate are common — cystic form of cancer is rare. Ultrasound diagnosis of malignant cysts irregular in shape, heterogeneous content, visualized hypoechoic areas — conduct research on prostate cancer (prostatic specific antigen and transrectal biopsy of the prostate).
Which contributes to the formation of cysts
Predisposing factors to the formation of cysts:
- enhanced secretion of glands;
- benign prostatic hyperplasia;
- chronic prostatitis with frequent relapses;
- genital injuries;
- stones prostate;
- fibrosis of the prostate;
- stagnation in the pelvic organs ( lack of physical activity, varicose veins of small pelvis, irregular sexual life or, conversely, sexual excesses (Masturbation, coitus interruptus, etc.);
- the operational intervention and manipulations on the prostate gland.
Professional activity associated with vibration, also referred to as risk factors.
Symptoms and signs cyst of the prostate
Small cysts are more likely to find in an ultrasound.
Clinical symptoms depend on the location of education, its dimensions, concomitant diseases of the prostate.
If the cyst has a compressing effect on the urethra, your symptoms characteristic of disorders of urine outflow against the background of the obstruction of the lower urinary tract:
- the change in the quality of the urine stream;
- the need to natureline when urination;
- discomfort during urination;
- a feeling of incomplete emptying of the bladder;
- pain during sex, intensifying during ejaculation;
- retrograde ejaculation;
- violation of potency;
- discomfort in the perineum;
- low-grade fever.
How to diagnose a cyst of the prostate
When collecting complaints and palpation of the prostate through the rectum is not always possible even to suggest the diagnosis, education should be touched with the wall of the rectum.
To confirm the diagnosis, perform ultrasonography with a transrectal probe.
When performing transrectal ultrasound diagnostics access more visible cysts with diameter more than 10 mm, with a conventional, transabdominal examination, little education to diagnose it is impossible.
MRI is more informative method, but given its high cost, MRI is resorted to only in cases of suspected prostate cancer.
Sometimes, you may need to urethrocystoscopy (periurethral cyst of the prostate) or urethrography.
When violations of the outflow of urine perform uroflowmetry.
There is no specific diagnostic laboratory tests, which clearly could confirm the presence of cysts in the prostate gland.
The secret of the prostate may contain red blood cells, white blood cells that may occur for a variety of urological pathologies.
In General, the analysis of urine, as a rule, any changes there, except for a cyst in communication with the cavity of the bladder, which can be urine blood.
The semen analysis will help to answer the question of preserving fertility in men.
Treatment of cysts of the prostate
For small tumors (6-8 mm) being monitored: daily 1 once a year the blood on the DOG and perform TRUS.
If during the examination there is evidence for inflammation — prescribed antibacterial, anti-inflammatory therapy.
It is important
Physiotherapy in the cyst of the prostate, especially in the age of the patient is not shown, as it can trigger active growth.
For this reason, doctors recommend avoiding drugs for the local treatment capable of enhancing metabolic processes and blood circulation in the gland.
Operations for cyst of the prostate
When significant size of the cyst, a severe compression of the tissues and complaints, not weakening on the background of drug treatment resort to hirurgicheskiy interventions. The choice depends on the location of the tumor, its type (simple or complex cysts, with partitions), size and potential harm.
As a rule, in modern urology the prostate cyst can be removed by minimally invasive method that allows to preserve the prostate function.
Cysts often associated with benign hyperplasia of the prostate, find out here that it contributes to the development of symptoms of obstruction of the lower urinary tract.
Before making a decision about surgery can be prescribed alpha-blockers.
Simple puncture of the cyst of the prostate is performed using a thin needle under ultrasound control. The resulting liquid is analyzed for abnormal (cancer) cells.
To achieve a collapsed wall with subsequent scarring, in the cavity of education introduced special liquid called sclerosant.
If the cyst leads to recurrence of chronic inflammation, has increased or suppuration – removal of produce transrectal or transurethral.
Laser enucleation of the cyst (HoLEP) is performed only in the absence of prostate cancer and abscess.
Some clinics perform transurethral resection (TUR).
Unwanted effects of cyst in the prostate
If not treated, men cyst in the prostate can result in the following:
- acute urinary retention;
- stones prostate;
- acute inflammation;
- retrograde ejaculation;
- rupture of the cyst with infection;
- prostate cancer (in rare cases, when the malignancy develops cystic prostate cancer).
It is not always possible to prevent pathology, but the rejection of bad habits, annual medical check-UPS and timely treatment of inflammation, avoidance of precipitating factors and prevention of STDs – the chance of developing of cysts in the prostate is reduced.
Victoria Mishina, urologist, medical columnist