White stripes and spots on nails – causes, diagnosis and treatment

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White bands and spots on the nails in the scientific literature are designated by the term “leukonychia”. These pathological changes of the nail plate is not considered as an independent disease, but can indicate negative changes occurring in the body

Why do I have white stripes and spots on the nails?

Decided to allocate 2 types of leukonychia – true and false. In the first case, the strips appear as a result of violations occurring in the matrix of the nail plate. But in most cases there is a false variety caused by various diseases and disorders. If looking at their nails, did you notice stripes or spots, you should visit your doctor. It is strongly recommended to pass complex examination to reveal the real reason for such changes.

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The immediate cause of the changes is a violation of the process of keratization (keratinization) of the plate. Under the influence of certain factors between its layers is lipid and water appear a microscopic air gap. They are visually perceived as white spots and dashes. No white pigment in the dead skin tissues no.

According to modern classification, the degree of prevalence of process distinguish 2 types of leuconychia:

  • limited (partial keratinization failure on 1-2 nails);
  • total (affected or the entire nail plate of all fingers).

Probable causes of false leukonychia:

pyatna-na-nogtyahOne of the frequent causes of the appearance of white spots and stripes on the nails is compliance with restrictive diets. The body lacks essential amino acids, vitamin compounds, macro – and trace elements (in particular phosphorus and calcium). If the reason for leukonychia steel nutritional factors (errors in eating and diet), often appear paired transverse stripes. With the seasonal shortage of vitamins appear isolated, and prolonged hypovitaminosis multiple spots.

Individual defects do not appear again after the regrowth of the nail, talk about temporary and not very significant lack of vitamins. A serious concern is stripes and spots, which occupy more than 20% of the area of the plate.

Leukonychia occurs not only on the background of deficiency of vitamins, but their excessive alimentary intake (hypervitaminoses).

Please note:the appearance of leukonychia often leads the relative incompatibility of certain substances. Many vitamin and mineral supplements is far from ideal; it is not necessary to take a variety of Supplements without first consulting your doctor.

The condition of the nails adversely affect functional disorders of the digestive system. If you break the process of assimilation of nutrients, the body begins to experience a lack of water – and fat-soluble vitamins (A, E, b group, ascorbic acid). The nail plate is changing with a lack of selenium, zinc, iodine, silicon and iron.

Important:the dash in most case have a transverse direction. The longitudinal strips may be associated with protein deficiency.

White stripes on nails – evidence of exhaustion of the nervous system. Leukonychia often diagnosed in patients suffering from neurosis, or post-shock state. Changes in the nail plate are seen in people who are exposed to psycho-emotional stress and complaining of chronic fatigue. For nervous exhaustion and depression characterized by the appearance of large spots in the Central part of the plate.

Diseases of the digestive system are accompanied by total leukonychia.

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Appearance white stripes accompanied by a fungal infection. Nail often turns yellow and somewhat softened.

In chronic renal failure having white spots on the lower part of the nail; the top plate has a normal color.

Too high level of glucose in the blood affects the condition of the nail. On the background of violations of carbohydrate metabolism appear spots or small lines. One of the reasons for false leukonychia diabetes.

For diseases of the cardiovascular system are characterized by the appearance of single or multiple spots, and the very nail plate has a bluish visual

Important:in some cases, leukonychia is one of the signs of dysfunction of the respiratory system. It is detected in some people with chronic lung disease.

About leukonychia very often diagnosed in children and adolescents up to 15 years. Most of them experience periodic lack of vitamins and minerals due to active growth of the organism. In addition, the metabolism in children is not well balanced as adults. Another reason for the change of the nail plate can be a hormonal imbalance, characteristic of puberty.

Lines on the nails are detected in most pregnant women. Their appearance is due to a deficiency of calcium, iron and zinc, since a significant portion of dietary minerals is the formation of organs and systems of the unborn child.

Leukonychia often leads to regular work with aggressive chemicals (detergents, organic solvents) without gloves.

In women this problem can occur with too frequent cutting of the cuticles to the base or low quality manicure, violation of technology of gluing artificial nails, etc. To leukonychia traumatic characteristic of the individual dots and spots (sometimes strip) with a chaotic location.

Important:during the differential diagnosis of leukonychia it is important to distinguish from the so-called stripes may cross lines in white-blue colours, up to 5 mm. They are one of the symptoms of poisoning by heavy metals (thallium) or with arsenic.

The appearance of white streaks or spots on toenails can be caused by mechanical action (pressure) when wearing tight shoes (e.g., shoes with tapered toes).

How to get rid of stains and stripes on your nails?

To cope with false leukonychia, you need to remove the cause of its occurrence. Upon detection of the stripes and spots should undergo comprehensive diagnosis.

Note:in some Asian countries (particularly in China) inspection of nails is an obligatory procedure when visiting the doctor, such as measuring heart rate or blood pressure. Doctors East several thousand years ago found a correlation between many physical illnesses and condition nail plate.

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The nail plate grows on the average in 6 months. Thus, the identification of leukonychia tells about the problems that occurred recently, or continued to the present time.

Some of the reasons often have what is called “lie on the surface” and to deal with them is relatively easy. If you are on a restricted diet, consult a dietician and make adjustments in your diet for the treatment and prevention of hypovitaminosis and mineral deficiencies. Recommended menus include more fresh greens – parsley, celery, spinach etc and fruits (preferably local “seasonal”, because they have the highest content of vitamins). The diet needs to be enriched in animal and vegetable proteins. Try to consume more milk and dairy products (cheese).

The physician can take pharmacy vitamin complexes. The main thing – do not exceed the prescribed dosage, not to cause hypervitaminosis.

For chronic injuries, nail plates, try to visit the nail salon less often, and do use extreme caution when handling nails and cuticles.

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If the problem lies in the violations of the nervous system, the situation is more complicated. Of course, to get rid of chronic fatigue and other effects of stress you need to take a vacation and, if possible, to change the situation. Normalization of work and rest is the basis of prevention of neurological disorders. Some problems (in particular, the effects of strong traumatic factor) is almost impossible to handle without professional assistance. For the normalization of the nervous system may need sessions with a therapist and medication with the use of sedation (sedatives) and tranquilizers.

When identifying diseases of the liver, gastrointestinal tract, cardiovascular or urinary system pathology treatment is carried out by the relevant specialist.

If the appearance of longitudinal or transverse stripes and spots on the nails accompanied by symptoms such as itching, burning and cracking of the skin around the nail, probably we are talking about fungal disease. In such cases, you need as quickly as possible to get on reception to the dermatologist. During diagnosis is determined by a type of fungus that allows you to assign the most effective medication to combat it.

belye-poloski-na-nogtyaxTo speed up the process of regeneration of healthy plate it is useful to apply topically vegetable oil – almond or peach. Very useful pharmacy oil solution of vitamins A and E and fish oil – they should be put on the nails before bed. Inside you can also take a comprehensive drug Aevitum. To improve the condition of nails daily to do therapeutic baths for hands. In water add the decoction of oak bark, sea salt (1 tsp per liter), iodine, or infusion of chamomile flowers. The duration of each procedure – 10-15 minutes.

In the nail, it is useful to RUB the heated mixture of lemon juice and olive oil (ingredients are taken in equal volumes).

Recipe “medicinal toothpaste”:

Take 2 capsules Aevit, 2 drops of 5% tincture of iodine and 25 ml of olive oil. Mix the ingredients and apply the resulting substance on your nails before bedtime with a soft brush.

Prevention of lakoniki includes:

  • timely diagnosis and treatment of somatic diseases;
  • the adherence to work and rest;
  • proper nutrition;
  • the use of protective equipment when working with corrosive substances;
  • observance of rules of personal hygiene (to prevent fungal infection);
  • wearing comfortable shoes “” size;
  • careful holding of the manicure.

Plisov Vladimir, medical columnist