Pathology, in which there is a violation of the form or the integrity of the outer ear, is called a deformation of the auricle. Depending on the severity of the condition it may or may not affect the human ear. The correction is carried out by a surgeon specializing in ear surgery, but only after consultation with the otolaryngologist.
The basis of the auricles – thin elastic cartilaginous tissue, which is densely covered by layer of skin. This fabric is characterized by the presence of a large number of bends. Sealed ears the bones of the skull by ligaments and muscles. In this area there is little blood supply.
Because as complex surgery for the correction of deformations of the ears are considered to be technically difficult. This is explained by the necessity to work with three-dimensional structure, when the specialist in the best case scenario recreates the dimensions, position and structure of the organ, and at worst lost auditory function.
Important! The complexity of such operations is due to the importance of the correct shape of ears for the patient. They are responsible for the formation of a harmonious image. In addition, when the evaluation of a person by others is of great importance the integrity of perception, in other words, the degree of development of all parts of the body.
The disease can manifest itself at an early age, bringing children a lot of inconvenience. They are all connected with the ridicule of their peers and in the absence of medical care may end formed with an inferiority complex.
To development defect can result in:
- Congenital deformities of the ears. They boil down to incorrect placement of the cartilage, and excessive or insufficient soft tissue. Develop due to influence of adverse factors on the organism of mother during gestation, especially in the first trimester, and when there is a formation of the external ear. To provoke the appearance of pathology can and fetal infectious diseases.
- Acquired diseases. Often appear due to damage to the integrity of the ear as a result of injury, neglect of safety regulations in the workplace. Provoke the appearance of the defect can also surgery, thermal or chemical burn, inflammation.
Please note! Keloid scar, which, in essence, is the growth of skin along the entire length of the ear as a result of inflammation or injury is also a cause of deformation. In some cases, to cause it may even puncture the ear lobe.
Inflammatory processes in the ear often lead to thickening of the cartilage. In medical circles, the pathology called “boxer’s ear”. Another variant of development of defect – occurrence of tumors in the parotid area. Worst form of defect is the complete absence of the auricle as a result of injury.
Among the congenital defects of the ears, doctors provide:
- macrotia is a pathological condition, in which it noted a disproportionate increase in the hearing due to excess cartilage;
- droopy ears – the location of the ears is not parallel to the temporal bone and angle of 30 – 90 degrees;
- “sternotomy” ears – when the cartilage is bent inward or downward;
- pathology of the earlobes increase in size, split prirastanie or complete absence;
- defects of the curl – the appearance of a ledge on it, which is called the tubercle of Darwin, the tapering of the upper pole of the shell in combination with a smooth curl (“Satyr ear”), excessive flattening (“ear macaque”);
- the microtia – it is the underdevelopment of the auricles.
Please note! If microtia of the ear can be ingrown, too small or flat. Pathology is often accompanied by hypoplasia of the middle ear, and anomalies of a certain side of the face. If there is a bilateral microtia, the patient becomes disabled as a result of hearing loss, speech.
There are 3 degrees of underdevelopment of the auricle:
- The first is characterized by the presence of individual parts of the body, though in a reduced size.
- The second is characterized by a roller instead of a curl, which is located on the site of the ear.
- Third – can be diagnosed in the complete absence of the auricle. The last place can be a shapeless mound.
Problem with the ear visible to the naked eye. Meanwhile, to assess the situation, physicians may prescribe additional research, the essence of which is to identify the true causes of the strain and its degree of complexity. Most often these methods are CT and MRI.
Deformity correction by surgery
Correction of defects of the auricles does otoplasty is one of the areas of plastic surgery. During the operation specialist is trying not only to accurately reproduce all parts of the outer ear to maintain the size, structure and position, but also to return the patient lost hearing. The success of the procedure – the correct choice of methodology.
Important! In children the elimination of defects of the auricles is not carried out. The optimal age – 7 – 9 years. Previously difficult to obtain satisfactory results because of the peculiarities of growth and development of the body, after all this time he still formed. The exception to this rule are situations in which the slightest delay can lead to loss of hearing or complications. Acquired deformities due to trauma eliminate not earlier than 18 months from the date of the incident.
Operation on elimination of defect is performed in several stages, between each of which time span is 2 – 4 months. A similar methodology due to the complexity of the terrain of the outer ear, the disadvantage of parotid tissue and increased scarring of the operated area. The basis of the new ears created from rib cartilage.
Prior to the otoplasty specialist informs the patient about the risks associated with it as well as possible implications in prolonged rehabilitation period. After this, create images in different angles, based on which, through the use of techniques, Gonzales-Ox drawn in the missing elements of the ear.
Please note! In severe deformities of the patient in surgery under General anesthesia, and in the lung under local anesthesia.
At the initial stage of otoplasty in place of the missing element of the auricle is formed subcutaneous pocket, which is subsequently filled with cartilaginous tissue. When it survives (it usually takes up to six months), it is detached along with the skin, and in its place form the ear using skin graft. As a rule, the course of otoplasty with all stages can be delayed for up to 12 months.
An operation to remove the defects “the ears of the fighters,” featuring broken during the competition the cartilage is reduced to a reconstruction of their anatomical shape. In this cartilaginous plate is cut from the back side of the ear, and then restores the integrity of cartilage and fixes them in the desired position through the use of special rollers. Leave last for up to 7 days and then removed.
Despite the fact that the stitches will be removed 10 – 12 days, pressure bandage, which protects the body from injury, it is recommended to wear no less than 14 days.
Important! In some cases, the Pinna is held in the correct position with the aid of protectors or elastic rings.
Contraindications to otoplasty
Operation to correct defects of the ear is not carried out in the presence of:
- diseases of internal organs;
- of bleeding disorders due to medications;
- occurring infectious processes;
- malignant or benign tumors;
- inflammation of the ear;
- of diabetes;
It is worth noting that in the healing of wounds after otoplasty tissue of the ear can be re-deformed. The cause of this is a keloid scar. Therefore, if there is a high risk of its formation, the patient may refuse surgery.
The effects of otoplasty
Despite the complexity of the operation, it lasts from an hour to two hours and usually succeeds. Complications recorded no more than 0.5% of cases. The most common ones:
All these symptoms can negatively affect the appearance of the auricles, so be sure the plastic surgeon informs the patient. The most dangerous complication is considered to be necrosis of the cartilage. To eliminate the risk of its development, operated on after otoplasty is left under the care of a physician for another 2 – 3 days.
The right choice of the expert and methods of operation – the key to its success. He is justified in 90% of cases. In the other, due to the asymmetry or complications, the patient returns to the operating table again.
Deformation of the ears is a serious pathology, which at best spoils the appearance and causes the development of an inferiority complex, and at worst leads to hearing loss. Meanwhile, the diagnosis is not a death sentence. The defect was successfully corrected by using one of the directions of plastic surgery – otoplasty.
Sovinskaya Elena, medical columnist