Cleft palate in humans: causes of defect correction methods

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Cleft palate – a congenital disorder manifested in the form of a cleft in the middle of the sky. This disease is accompanied by violation of the respiratory function, difficulty in eating. Pathology is fraught with the development of numerous complications and therefore requires urgent compulsory treatment

Cleft palate: causes of defect

A cleft palate develops in utero, as a result of improper fusion of the facial bones.

Please note:cleft palate is one of the most common congenital abnormalities. According to statistics, this disease occurs in approximately one out of 1,000 babies to be born!

According to doctors, to provoke the birth of a child with cleft palate can the following factors:

  • genetic predisposition;
  • volchya gubawrong way of life of the expectant mother, Smoking and alcohol abuse;
  • unfavorable ecological situation;
  • a severe form of morning sickness;
  • the use of narcotic substances and potent drugs (especially during the first trimester of pregnancy);
  • late pregnancy (age group mother older than 35 years);
  • obesity;
  • effects on the pregnant body of toxic substances;
  • a lack of folic acid;
  • traumatic injury of the abdomen during pregnancy;
  • tumor tumors localized in the region of the uterus;
  • diseases infectious-inflammatory nature.

Lead to the birth of a baby with a pathological, abnormal structure of the sky may also frequent emotional turmoil, exhaustion, excessive exercise, and improper diet of the expectant mother!

Of pathology

A cleft palate is not acquired cosmetic defect. This pathology manifests itself immediately after the appearance of the baby born and is characterized by the following clinical signs:

  • guba volkviolation of respiratory function;
  • difficulty in eating (the partition between the nose and the oral cavity of the child is absent, so food and liquid can penetrate into the nose);
  • hearing;
  • violations of speech function;
  • delays in mental and physical development

In addition, such children are particularly prone to depressions, often become targets of ridicule from their peers, which leads to emotional injury and the development of an inferiority complex!

What is the danger of disease?

In the absence of timely, competent treatment of such a pathology, like a cleft palate, may lead to extremely undesirable development of the following complications:

  • the curvature of the teeth;
  • malocclusion;
  • hearing loss up to complete deafness;
  • speech disorders;
  • diseases of the respiratory tract;
  • otitis;
  • sinusitis.

Important! Cleft palate causes significant problems with social adaptation of the child, difficulties in career choice and device personal life!

Therefore, if parents want to protect their child from serious physical diseases and psychological trauma, cleft palate needs to be treated and preferably as early as possible!

Cleft palate: surgery

Treatment of cleft palate is through surgery. This operation is called uranoplasty. Surgical treatment is aimed at elimination of abnormal, pathological splitting in the area of the sky.

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During the operation, the specialist covers cleavage with a tissue flap taken from nearby areas of the oropharynx of the patient. Thus, restoring the integrity of tissues and middle pharyngeal Department.

After that, the little patient suture, palatal surface is treated with antiseptic solution. At the end of the procedure, the physician temporarily imposes a palatal locking plate.

In the result of a successful uranoplasty can achieve the following:

  • the removal of the external defect;
  • normalization of respiratory function;
  • the possibility of full speech development;
  • normalization of processes of reception of food.

After the mandatory recovery and rehabilitation period, the child’s condition is normalized, and he begins to develop as all other children!

When contraindicated uranoplasty?

Surgical treatment of cleft palate, as well as other operations, has a number of limitations and contraindications. Experts do not recommend surgical intervention in the following cases:

  • operaciapneumonia;
  • anemia;
  • spinal gryzenia education;
  • respiratory disease occurs in acute form;
  • acute infectious diseases;
  • pulmonary pathology;
  • hypoplasia of the lungs;
  • cardiovascular disease in the complicated form;
  • respiratory disorders;
  • asthma;
  • severe malformations.

Note: before surgical intervention is necessary to consult with professionals such as speech therapist, pediatrician, neurologist, otolaryngologist and maxillofacial surgeon!

Basic principles of treatment

Uranoplasty for the correction of the hard palate is recommended when the baby is a little older. An effective and safe surgical treatment of cleft palate involves a strict adherence to the following principles:

  • a phased implementation.
  • individual determination of the optimal age for surgery;
  • the end therapy before the age of seven the child.

Please note: according to doctors, the best time to uranoplasty in the period from 3 to 6 years!

During the preschool years, kids tolerate cosmetic surgery and have time to fully recover before entering the school! After a successful uranoplasty and rehabilitation courses, with the child removed the disability, and he gets the opportunity to live a full life, to grow and to learn!

Care postoperational period

otit-u-rebenka To fully eliminate the problem of cleft palate, the little patient will likely have to move a number of surgical interventions. A few weeks the child should be kept in the clinic under the constant supervision of specialists.

Little patients are prescribed an antibiotic, painkillers and anti-inflammatory drugs, which are selected individually. Every few days doctors perform bandaging and massage joints.

For the fastest possible recovery and prevent the development of complications, it is important to provide the child with correct, complete care.

To achieve these goals, parents should listen to the following expert recommendations:

  1. For several days after surgery to ensure the little patient in bed and absolute rest.
  2. Feed the baby with light food (liquid or pureed), at room temperature.
  3. To pay special attention to the oral hygiene of the child.

Please note:the duration of the recovery period after uranoplasty can take, on average, from 2 weeks to 1.5 months.

Rehabilitation course

volk gubaThe baby syndrome cleft palate could fully recover, the operation uranoplasties will not be enough! A full rehabilitation course involves the observation from such a specialist like orthodontist, who monitors the normal development of the upper jaw of the child, the formation of a correct bite and dentition.

Such children definitely need to work with speech therapists and speech pathologists. These classes are necessary for the normal development of speech function, correct breathing, setting the correct speech and correct possible speech defects. Also speech therapist, speech pathologist develops the soft palate of the child and improve his articulation. It is important to participate in the preschool years that the child could go to a normal school and to fully develop!

It is necessary that after suffering uranoplasty (during the rehabilitation period) the child is constantly observed in the pediatric otolaryngologist. Because such children are particularly vulnerable to diseases and pathologies of the upper respiratory tract.

A full rehabilitation course after suffering uranoplasty includes the following:

  • therapeutic gymnastics;
  • speech therapy courses massage;
  • physiotherapy.

The results of surgical interventions become noticeable for several weeks after surgery when the swelling goes away. Remaining on the face scars can be subsequently removed with a laser.

How to prevent?

Prevention plays an important role to prevent the birth of a baby with a cleft palate. In the waiting period, the child expectant mother it is necessary especially to protect your health and comply with the following specialists ‘ recommendations:

  1. zayachya-guba To refrain from Smoking (and passive), alcohol and drugs.
  2. Properly, eat a healthy diet.
  3. To take vitamin-mineral complexes for pregnant women, calcium and folic acid.
  4. To avoid excessive physical exertion.
  5. To fully relax and have a good sleep.
  6. Avoid stressful situations and emotional turmoil.
  7. To watch their weight, avoiding over-recruitment of extra pounds during pregnancy.
  8. Stop work associated with hazardous production, heavy lifting, exposure to chemicals and excessive physical strain.
  9. To avoid traumatic injuries of the abdomen and internal organs.
  10. Regularly do an ultrasound and to visit the specialists if you have any health problems.

Timely uranoplasty and subsequent rehabilitation will allow to save the baby from cleft palate. The overall medical prognosis for this disease is quite favourable!

Sovinskaya Elena, medical columnist