Herniation of the spine is a deformation and bulging of part of the cartilage disc between the vertebrae. Hernial formation causes compression of the nerve roots or spinal cord, which manifests as unbearable pain and impaired neurological functions. The diagnosis often can be found in the medical reports, therefore, is to understand what it is and what types of hernia are.
To understand how are formed of a herniated disc, it is necessary to remember the anatomy course. The intervertebral disc consists of cartilaginous connective tissue. In this release:
- purposee the core in the Central part, has a gelatinous jelly-like consistency, easily stretched and springy;
- the fibrous ring at the periphery, consisting of a dense fabric and provides a protective function.
The task of the anatomical structure is to provide the mobility and flexibility of the spinal backbone, perform the function of damping and cushioning when walking, running, jumping. The intervertebral discs connect the vertebrae together.
Due to the high load on the spine in the process or doing sports, osteochondrosis, injuries to the intervertebral discs protrude and formed a hernia. Doctors suggested many classifications of lesions. Knowledge of the types of lesions of the intervertebral discs allow the specialists choose the right treatment method plan the volume of surgical intervention, to develop a plan of rehabilitation.
Classification by location
Localization of the following types of hernias of the spine:
- in the cervical (neck) – are denoted by letter C, is about 30%;
- in the thoracic (chest) Department – Th, their share is only 6%;
- in the lumbar (lumbar) division – L, their frequency reaches 64%.
A large incidence of lumbar hernias is due to the maximum load that bears on this segment. Rare education of the cervical, because of its mobility. Lesions of the intervertebral discs of the thoracic segment – an extremely rare phenomenon.
The disease is primary or secondary. Primary lesions develop on healthy spine injuries. Secondary education is a complication of degenerative diseases of the spine, the most common of which is osteoarthritis.
Classification by the degree of protrusion
The size of the hernia, protruding outside the vertebra, education is divided into:
- The protrusion – hernial protrusion does not exceed 3 mm.
- Prolapse – protrusion of 3-5 mm in this stage may develop clinical symptoms of the disease.
- Developed a hernia – a bulging disc is more than 6 mm. often fibrous ring breaks the nucleus pulposus comes out, is formed by the sequestration of the disc.
In the direction of protrusion
On the topography of the hernia are divided like this:
- Front – bulging develops forward, any symptoms arise. This type is considered the most favorable.
- Lateral or lateral – face side of the vertebral body, often through openings of the spinal nerve roots.
- Rear structure bulges back into the spinal cord canal, they can cause compression. This type of hernias of the spine the most difficult and dangerous.
- Schmorl’s nodule – vertical bulging of the disc up or down to the body above or the underlying vertebra.
According to the structure of education are:
- you have saved the connection structure and the intervertebral disc;
- wandering or sequestered herniation ceases communication with the affected disk, it is moved in the spinal canal and dangerous because of the risk of compression of the nerves;
- moving education the move, it returns to its place.
It should be noted that in practice, there are multiple hernias of various types and localizations. And the definition of the nature of the lesion starts to develop tactics of treatment of the patient.