Wounds, scratches, injuries – all these troubles are accompanied by violation of the integrity of the skin and the release of blood from damaged blood vessels.
The bleeding is a threat to life and human health. Even a bleeding finger may be a potential threat to his master. Therefore, to know and be able to apply the knowledge to stop the bleeding in practice is to protect primarily themselves and their family members, and in severe cases save.
Bleeding: a little bit about anatomy and physiology
The main cause of the bleeding is trauma, violation of the integrity of the vascular network that feeds those or other bodies. Injuries occur when the tissue, as a symptom or as a consequence serious illness – tuberculosis, spontaneous abortion, due to disturbance of blood clotting.
Nature has put in the body of every living creature defense mechanism against blood loss. For a set of processes of stopping of bleeding is responsible for the hemostatic system.
If damaged vessels begins to produce a special substance is thrombin, which initiates the process of elaboration of fibrin. The result, fibrin strands are collected in a tangle, forming a blood clot – a blood clot. The objective of the formation of occlusion of the damaged vessel and stop the bleeding.
With extensive injuries the body cannot produce the necessary components for relief of blood loss alone. Without additional outside assistance could end up sad.
Characteristics and types of bleeding
There are several classifications of bleeding. Depending on the kind of the pathological process varies and methods of first aid.
The manifestations are:
- external bleeding – the blood poured out of the skin;
- inner – vention takes place in the inner cavity of the body. Dangerous because a long time may not give external signs of pathology.
At the sight of the damaged vessel are distinguished:
- mixed bleeding.
If the damage of the great vessels develops arterial bleeding. During this process, the color poured out the blood of a bright scarlet, as it is saturated with oxygen. Stream tremors at high speed. Alone there is no stopping it.
Venous bleeding have lower rate of rupture. The blood is dark red, cherry. Independently unstoppable.
Capillary bleeding develops when damage to the small blood vessels around the area of the wound surface. Aintensive. To stop the bleeding of this kind is possible without resorting to specialized medical care.
Internal blood loss is determined by the running total of the symptoms and the presence of history of trauma. Patient has severe weakness, pale skin, cyanosis, weak pulse, thirst, drowsiness. Shortness of breath or heavy breathing evidence of hemorrhage in the lungs. Violation of the nervous regulation, paralysis of one or more muscle groups, confusion, loss of consciousness is a sign of bleeding in the skull – rupture of aneurysm or stroke.
It is important
If you suspect internal bleeding requires urgent hospitalization of a patient in the ICU.
First aid for bleeding
With extensive injuries moderate but prolonged bleeding, signs of stroke should urgently deliver the victim to a medical facility or call emergency assistance. With extensive capillary effusion is also recommended to go to the hospital.
How to stop external bleeding
Rules of first aid depend on the type of bleeding.
When damage to small blood vessels affected area treated with an antiseptic such as hydrogen peroxide and closed with gauze. To fix the tampon to be using a patch or apply a sterile bandage. Make sure that the bandage did not press the blood vessels.
If there are signs of arterial bleeding, you should pinch off the damaged vessel above the wound surface. The flow of blood must stop. To call emergency services. Possible tourniquet. This can be as a specialized medical device, and any materials at hand – a belt, scarf, belt from the dress or bag strap. The main thing – to squeeze the damaged vessel.
It is important
Previously on the damaged limb is put into a gauze pad. To harness, attach a note with the exact time of imposition of bandages.
A tourniquet should not remain on the limb for more than 2 hours in the warm season and 1.5 more hours in the winter. If medical care is delayed, then after this period the bandage should be loosened for 5 minutes and then pinch the limb. In this time interval the damaged vessels are pinching their fingers or fist, that is, in any case can not afford to develop a new bleeding.
In venous hemorrhage the blood is moving slowly, continuously and without shocks. The wound compression bandage and the victim urgently hospitalitynet to a medical facility.
The exception to the rule
There are a number of external bleeding, which are impossible to stop with pressing bandages.
What to do in this case?
The outpouring of blood from the mouth, throat, hemoptysis.
This is a sign of development of hemorrhage in the system lungs and bronchi, stomach. The victim should sit on the stomach to apply cold. Not to talk to the patient.
If you suspect stomach bleeding is at rest, the patient put to one side to keep the blood got into the trachea. Cold on the stomach.
Help with uterine bleeding
The main symptom of uterine hemorrhage is filling 1 standard lining for 1 hour.
In severe cases, the intensity can increase.
- to lay woman;
- cold in the abdomen;
- drink plenty of liquids;
- urgent hospitalization emergency services personnel. When the woman passes the emergency room and immediately gets into surgery gynecological.
Aid for nosebleed
Despite the apparent lack of threat to human life, this kind of hemorrhage can cause extensive blood loss with a developing weakness and iron deficiency States.
- the victim needs to be in a state of reclining or sitting;
- put in the nostrils the swab soaked with antiseptic;
- the ice on the bridge of his nose.
Should not throw back the head back. In this case, the selection will begin to ooze through the larynx, and the patient will swallow them. Symptoms the bleeding to stop, but the formation of fibrin clot will slow down.
After the relief of the pathological process to the victim requires rest. During this period prohibited hot food or drink, but the kind is shown. You should also wait with spicy seasonings.
After repeated episodes of nasal bleeding should contact an audiologist and to examine the system of the nose and maxillary sinuses.
Bleeding in the eye system
The use of a pressure bandage is prohibited. Apply on the affected on a gauze bandage and deliver to the eye Department of a hospital.
What to do when internal hemorrhages of any etiology
Yourself to stop this blood loss is impossible. If you suspect internal damage of the main vessels, the stroke shown urgent hospitalization.
The patient with internal bleeding shown urgent intervention to audit the internal cavities of the body edema and hemorrhage. Stroke patients hospitalitynet in the office of the corresponding profile. Treatment with this diagnosis conservative.
To what doctor to address with bleeding
The choice of specialist depends on the location of the place of violation of the integrity of the vessel.
Who will help the victim:
- epistaxis – otolaryngologist;
- uterine gynecologist;
- other – surgeon;
- stroke – neuro-surgeon, neurologist;
- eye – optometrist in a hospital.
After normalization of the doctor may recommend the consultation of specialists from different medical specialties.
The bleeding is life-threatening condition. No need to wait and hope that everything will work out. Even if you can’t cope with an ordinary cut, then ask for specialized help.
Olga Chumachenko, doctor, medical commentator