Possible causes of pain during sex in women

Dyspareunia — otherwise “painful intercourse”, and this terminology is used for all types of pain during sexual contact. Pain during sex in women can occur during penetration, during intercourse and/or after intercourse. It can be localized in any place intimate areas including the clitoris, labia or vagina, etc is any Pain: sharp, burning, burning, dull or paroxysmal, it depends on individual susceptibility.

How is the connection between dyspareunia and vaginismus

There are many reasons for pain during sex, dyspareunia and vaginismus are more common than others. Vaginismus is characterized by involuntary contraction of intimate muscles of the vagina. When attempting sexual intercourse vaginal spasm can cause discomfort in the perineum, burning, pain and inability to enter the penis.

It is important

Any cause of sexual pain can cause vaginismus. In these cases, vaginismus remains even after the original problem is resolved.

Possible causes of pain during sex in women

  • vulvodynia or vestibulodynia;
  • inflammation of the genitourinary system;
  • tumors of the genitals or pelvis;
  • ovarian cyst;
  • urethritis;
  • urinary tract infection;
  • interstitial cystitis;
  • vaginal dryness;
  • complicated breaks independent childbirth;
  • cancer of the vulva;
  • radiation therapy in anamnesis;
  • infections of the vagina fungal or bacterial, some STDs, etc.;
  • skin disease – lichen lichen sclerosis, lichen planus, eczema, psoriasis;
  • side effects when taking certain medicines;
  • trauma in the pelvic region and genitals;
  • hypoestrogenia during menopause;
  • allergic reaction to pads, condoms, contraceptive the contraceptive of local action and / or spermicides;
  • condition after diagnostic and painful examinations of the pelvis;
  • trauma due to sexual violence;
  • female genital mutilation genitals;
  • cyst of Bartholin’s gland;
  • sports injuries;
  • the endometriosis.

It is important to note that vaginismus can co-exist with the above mentioned pathologies, and to remain after their elimination.

Pain during intercourse in women in most cases disposable, if you to identify and remove the cause.

When dyspareunia psychological Genesis of the development of pain is caused by several aspects:

  • predisposing factor;
  • the formation of a stable reflex;
  • syndrome waiting.

In this case effective will be the passage of individual therapy with a psychologist.

In some women the pain occurs during sexual intercourse

There are no special parameters that could uniquely identify the predisposition of women to have pain during sex, but it is believed that problems can occur in those of the fairer half experiencing significant discomfort during gynecological examination or the introduction of a tampon. Psychological characteristics of women who suffer dyspareunia may have common traits:

  • a negative attitude towards sexual intimacy;
  • a rift in family relations;
  • possible diseases of the organs of the female urogenital system;
  • concomitant extragenital pathology.
  • Often trauma, surgery, moved trauma after sexual violence.

Types of dyspareunia

There are two types of pain during sex: primary and secondary dyspareunia.

Primary implies a complete lack of orgasmic discharge ever and receive positive emotions from intimacy, secondary — loss of pleasure from sex as a result of certain reasons.

Dyspareunia also divided according to the places of manifestation during sex, secrete superficial (lesion of vestibule of vagina, labia) and deep (touched deep inside structures, uterus, epididymis, bladder, rectum, etc.).

How to get treatment if pain during sexual intercourse

It is important

If a woman hurts to have sex, you need to consult a gynecologist. And only if we exclude the physiological reason is is recommended to consult a psychologist.

For gynaecological examination, apply narrow mirrors and moisturizers that reduce the risk of pain.

Mandatory strokes are investigated: atypia, microflora and infections, sexually transmitted diseases, preferably the PCR method.

Can crop discharge from the vagina in a nutrient medium and determining the sensitivity to drugs.

Disease, provoking pain during sexual contact


Painful sensations in the vulva can be due to any infection, including fungal. Discomfort of the vulva is shown on the background of decompensated diabetes, bacterial vaginosis and other diseases.

Once you’ve experienced pain during sex, it is likely that the pain will occur outside of sexual contact.

For vulvodynia characterized by the lack of response to the therapy.

Inflammation of the vestibule of the vagina — vulvar vestibule chronic process accompanied by pain during sex, often develops on the background of papillomaviruses infection or when you defeat fungal pathogens.

Lack of hydration

Vaginal dryness can be one of the causes of pain during intercourse. In the norm, before the introduction of the penis, glands abundantly secrete a secret, it contributes to a better sliding of the penis, and facilitates penetration of sperm to the egg. Hormonal changes with women age, estrogen level, ranging from 39 to 45 years begins to decline gradually, which leads to dryness of the vagina and the phenomena of tissue atrophy. Light enough traumatic factor, micro cracks, and with them the pain. This condition can be corrected in two ways: the use of special lubricants during sexual contact, irrigation with decoction of calendula and chamomile the vagina or by the doctor conducting hormone replacement therapy.

Pain during sex after childbirth

After uncomplicated spontaneous labor, subject to the necessary period for recovery before resuming sexual life, women with dyspareunia rarely encountered. Sometimes unpleasant sensations in the intimate area appear in the background of breastfeeding, which is caused by the hormonal changes and state of giperchuvstvitelnost.

Postpartum dyspareunia, if not breaks and injuries usually go away on their own within a few months of regular sexual life.


Pain during sex, which occur on the background of endometriosis require hormonal therapy. Typically, pain with endometriosis have a relationship with phase of the menstrual cycle. In the appointment of hormone therapy the health of the patient improves.

Adhesions and idiopathic dyspareunia

The cause of adhesions in the pelvis can be transferred inflammatory and infectious diseases or surgical intervention. For the improvement of the use of laparoscopic surgery with dissection of adhesions, physiotherapy effects.

When to establish the cause of pain during sexual relations women can’t, we are talking about the so-called idiopathic dyspareunia. Experts believe that the development of this pathology leading factor is a psychological disorder.

Cyst of Bartholin’s gland

Rounded education, filled with secret produced Bartolomeu gland. The woman is able to palpate. Cyst of Bartholin’s gland, on reaching a considerable size, it may interfere not only during sex, but even while walking. Most of the excretory duct is sealed against the background of a sexually transmitted infection, e.g. gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, but can appear on the background of nonspecific inflammation or poor hygiene. A small cyst may be observed conservatively, bartolina cyst of large size (up to 4 – 5 cm) involves surgical treatment.

Postradiation obesity

Some tumors of the female genital organs and intestines treated with radiation therapy. The action of the rays is detrimental not only to cancer cells but to normal. Radiation therapy leads to atrophic processes. In radiation vaginitis pain is a frequent companion not only during sex but also at rest. The cancers in this situation, designate candles with Methyluracil rate of up to 30 days and laser therapy.

Allergic reactions

Pain during sex often develops on contact with the allergen, which may be anything:

  • the latex of the condom;
  • detergent for intimate hygiene;
  • the lubricants;
  • spermicides;
  • scented pads;
  • synthetic underwear;
  • sexual devices.

Fortunately, the phenomenon is temporary, and when addressing contact with a unbearable substance, itching, swelling, redness and pain during sex in the vagina are themselves. If the body is overreacting, and significant symptoms – your doctor may recommend antihistamines for systemic and local action.

What else could cause pain during sex

During the first sexual intimacy there is a rupture of the hymen is accompanied by slight pain. If only the hymen is ruptured, the next sexual intercourse possible pain. The problem is simple: a doctor can remedy the defect with a scalpel.

Pain during sex in women can indicate inflammation of the urethra or bladder. In this situation, pay attention to the original dysuric disorders:

  • cramps frequent urination;
  • itching in the urethra;
  • pain in the projection of the bladder;
  • night urination in the toilet.

In addition, the cause of pain may be the phenomenon of congestio (stagnation) of blood in the pelvis, the anatomic features of the position of the uterus, inflammation of the appendages, uterine fibroids of large size.

Victoria Mishina, urologist, medical columnist