What is sinus bradycardia heart, what are its causes, symptoms, and whether you want to treat?

With the phenomenon of sinus bradycardia, is faced almost every person.

However you should know that in some cases, this may be a normal variant, and no dangerous disorders of the heart.

If the symptoms of arrhythmia are regular, it is cause of compulsory treatment to the doctor.

What is sinus bradycardia a heart?

Under this type of pathology means lower than the normal value, the number of heart beats per time unit (less than 60 beats per minute). For the development or maintenance of the contractile rhythm meets cardio-nervous education the sinus node. Normally it generates from 60 to 90 of conductive pulses per minute, each of which causes one of the heart contraction. This sets the correct healthy pace of work of the myocardium.

брадикардия сердцаWhat it is going on with the rhythm with bradycardia sinus of the heart? With such arrhythmias generation of the pulse is performed less frequently, the heart beats less frequently. As a result of violations of blood circulation leading to hypoxia (oxygen starvation).

There are two types of sinus arrhythmia:

  • physiological;
  • pathological.

In the first case, the arrhythmia is observed when a certain external impact and is considered a normal condition. To influencing factors include:

  • regular physical activity (exercise, heavy work);
  • night sleep;
  • prolonged exposure to the cold;
  • finding the body in the prone position for more than a day.

Heart rate (HR) under physiological sinus bradycardia is not less than 50 beats per minute without violations time intervals, rhythm and other clinical symptoms.

Pathological arrhythmia in itself is not a standalone disease, but a consequence of other existing pathologies. When this occurs, inconsistent, irregular pulse, accompanied by the deterioration of the General condition of the body.

Code according to ICD 10

According to the normative document ICD-10 (International classification of diseases, Tenth revision) sinus bradycardia has the code: R00.1 Bradycardia unspecified. See R00 (Abnormalities of heart rhythm).

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Normal rhythm and sinus bradycardia on ECG

Signs on ECG

To identify bradycardia can according to the electrocardiogram (ECG) is a graphic image of the potentials of the myocardium. Distinctive features of the arrhythmia in this case will be the following indicators:

  • Heart rate between 40 to 60 beats per minute;
  • the increase in R-R interval due to changes in segment T-P;
  • interval P-Q from 0.12 to 0.22 sec.;
  • prolongation of the interval Q-T in accordance with the heart rate;
  • no visible changes in the direction and amplitude of the teeth.

Sinus bradycardia is displayed on the ECG, confirmed by other methods used in the diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases.

The vertical position of the EOS

Along with the ECG analysis takes into account such an important parameter as the position of the electrical axis of the heart (LDE). This indicator measures the electrical activity of the myocardium, its orientation in the plane of the chest. The position of EOS in the rule may be:

  • vertical;
  • horizontal;
  • half-upright;
  • papersonline.

For abnormal heart tempo, as well as the presence of diseases of the myocardium occurs deviation EOS left or right.

So, the shift to the right indicates right ventricular hypertrophy due to such heart diseases as coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathy, congestive heart failure, myocarditis and others. These pathologies differ in arrhythmic behavior of the myocardium, including a slow heartbeat.

Deviation EOS left says left ventricular hypertrophy due to similar causes related to heart diseases.

The vertical position of EOS in the presence of characteristic changes in the electrical activity of the heart indicate the existing sinus bradycardia.

Symptoms

The slow heart rate leads to a deficiency of oxygen in organs and tissues of the body. When this particularly affected the brain. Depending on the clinical manifestations of the slowing of heart rate is divided into three stages.

  1. Mild or moderate. In this case, the recorded heart rate below 50 beats per minute. Other symptoms are absent or mild: dizziness, headache, weakness.
  2. Expressed. Heart rate is in the range from 30 to 40 beats per minute, blood pressure is lowered. Signs of sinus bradycardia with the obvious:
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    • fatigue, weakness;
    • shortness of breath even in the absence of physical load;
    • pain in region of heart;
    • severe dizziness, seizures, loss of vision, consciousness;
    • convulsions.

    Severe sinus bradycardia may increase on the background of existing chronic cardiac pathologies.

  3. Sharp or spicy. The most dangerous form of the disease, since all the clinical symptoms of sinus bradycardia are manifested simultaneously, spontaneously. The heart has a huge load to deal with which is extremely difficult or impossible. If not to help the man in this case, there is cardiac arrest and death.

The causes and manifestations of

The physiological type of arrhythmia does not require any special therapy due to the external influences that do not bring harm to the body. Causes of pathological bradycardia is more profound and associated with disorders of internal organs and tissues.

  1. Cardiovascular disease: the syndrome sick sinus, heart attack, myocarditis, cardiomyopathy, etc. In this case we speak about the organic form of arrhythmia.
  2. Pathology associated with high intracranial pressure, neuroses are the cause of noncardiac nature of abnormal heartbeat.
  3. The presence in the body sources of severe infections: sepsis, pneumonia, abscesses.
  4. Intoxication associated with severe food or chemical poisoning.
  5. The abuse of pharmaceutical drugs, reduce heart rate.
  6. Disorders of the endocrine system.
  7. Acute and chronic kidney disease, the liver.

An adult

When it comes to sinus bradycardia in adults, the latter often wonder about what it is. If a person is healthy, these violations are the natural, not demanding special treatment. Violation of the contractile sinus rate caused by physiological causes, not causes tangible harm to the body. Inconsistent pulse can be observed in healthy women during pregnancy. In most cases, therapy is not required. The exceptions are the constant attacks and deterioration of the General condition of the pregnant woman.

Slow heart rate inherent in older people, because aging affects all systems of life support. No pathological prerequisites, it is also a normal variant.

If an adult suffers from any chronic pathology or leads an unhealthy lifestyle (alcohol, Smoking), abnormalities in the myocardium is inevitable. In this case, the answer to the question about what is sinus bradycardia heart at the adult person and how it is dangerous, is of fundamental importance, since it will depend on the future life.

Adolescents

новорожденныйFor infants and young children typical heart rate over 80 beats per minute. Adolescents (from 12 years) heart rate normal 70 to 75 beats per minute. If these figures are reduced by 20 or more units, talking about sinus arrhythmia. Causes physiological arrhythmia in this case can be:

  • excessive physical activity, regular exercise;
  • hypothermia.

About the pathological nature of sinus rhythm disorders say, if exist:

  • genetic predisposition to the disease;
  • congenital heart disease or other pathology of the myocardium;
  • seriously undertreated or infectious disease;
  • disorders of the endocrine system;
  • allergies to medications, intoxication.

The accelerated growth of body and fast puberty provoke the appearance of sinus bradycardia in adolescent. This has a negative impact on psycho-emotional background of the child, leading to constant irritability, aggressiveness, frequent change of moods.

Athletes

Sinus bradycardia in athletes is not a rare phenomenon. This is due to the fact that with regular exercise the heart adapts to work in the strengthened mode, changing the parameters of blood circulation and energy exchange. Moreover, these changes persist even in the absence of athletic training. This can be seen on the ECG interpretation. In adolescents and adults, athletes, registers mild or moderate sinus bradycardia. For such sinus bradycardia characteristic upright or half-upright, EOS, which is characteristic of slim athletic build.

The consequences

боль в сердцеMild or moderate sinus bradycardia, due to physiological causes, is not life-threatening and requires no treatment.

Pathological the arrhythmia, particularly the organic form, can lead to very serious consequences, such as the appearance of extrasystoles. In this case, the causative agent of cardiac rhythm is not only the sinus node but also other sources of the conducting system of the myocardium, stimulating an extraordinary heartbeat.

Professional athletes heart is undergoing significant changes associated with hypertrophy of its departments. If physical loads are unbalanced or irregular, against the background of slow heart rate disturbances of blood circulation, which can lead to myocardial infarction, cardiosclerosis.

The effects of sinus bradycardia for children is very dangerous, especially for newborns and children of preschool age. When registering a heart rate much below normal, require urgent medical attention, because the hypoxia in this case, can be fatal.

Violation of the contractile sinus rhythm in pregnant women, in the case of existing pathologies, may lead to serious disorders of the vital functions of the fetus, related to lack of oxygen. Therefore, every expectant mother should know about what it means sinus bradycardia and what dangers it may present.

What is dangerous?

The question of what is dangerous sinus bradycardia heart, it becomes inevitable for those who are faced with this problem. Arrhythmia, detected for the first time, requires a full diagnosis to identify the causes of the disease. If you find the hidden pathology, you will need immediate treatment and constant supervision by a cardiologist. Ignore recurring symptoms of arrhythmia can lead to aggravation and progression of the untreated disease.

Sinus severe bradycardia dangerous suddenness and transience of symptoms, which can lead to heart failure.

Arrhythmia provokes attacks of a syndrome of Morgagni-Adams-Stokes, which are life threatening in case if there is no pacing. Untimely resuscitation therapy, would lead to disability or death of the patient. Therefore, people suffering from such disorders should first know what is dangerous sinus bradycardia.

Treatment

Before the diagnosis of sinus bradycardia, the doctor performs a complex diagnostic measures to identify the type of arrhythmia, its causes and features of Genesis. Diagnostics includes:
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  • description of complaints and anamnesis of disease;
  • ECG;
  • Ultrasound of the heart;
  • a laboratory study of the blood;
  • Holter ECG monitoring.

Based on the collected information, taking into account the severity of the symptoms, sinus bradycardia, treatment.

How to treat?

How do you treat sinus bradycardia heart, if such a diagnosis is established? It is important to remember that treatment in the first place, be aimed at elimination of the disease leading to arrhythmias.

If there are sudden signs of arrhythmia in the absence of serious disease, the person should render first aid to yourself, aimed at restoring normal heart rate, drink a strong Cup of coffee, tea or take drops that accelerate the heart rate, do some exercise, etc.

Treatment of sinus bradycardia the heart of the pathological nature provides pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapy, surgical intervention.

Drugs

Medical treatment of sinus bradycardia involves the administration of drugs, activating myocardial contraction and reduces the conductivity of the heart from the autonomic neurogenerative. These include:

  • anticholinergics (atropine). Used as emergency intravenous;
  • agonists (izadrin). Administered in the form of tablets or inhalation, if the patient has fixed the fact of temporary stop breathing.
  • bronchodilators (aminophylline);
  • cardioprotectors, antioxidants (riboxinum, Mexidol);
  • metabolism activators in cardiomyocytes (Actovegin, Mildronate);
  • nootropics (piracetam);
  • multivitamins.

таблеткиThe medication is only by prescription in the dosage and with the frequency specified by him. The self, in this case, danger to life!

The ineffectiveness of the conducted drug therapy and the patient’s condition, surgery is performed to establish pacemaker – the device that sets the correct heart rate.

The use of folk remedies

Treatment of folk remedies of sinus bradycardia is valid in therapy of mild and moderate forms are due to physiological causes. People’s treatment of sinus bradycardia includes receiving infusions or decoctions on the basis of ginseng, Siberian ginseng, yarrow, lemongrass, Helichrysum. These herbs have a tonic effect, leading to palpitations.

Take the army with such a diagnosis?

The answer to the question, do the army, register of sinus bradycardia depends on the possible causes and severity of symptoms. A healthy young man with no serious illnesses, but with a fixed FIB fit for military service as no threat to his life (1 category date). In the presence of pathologies along with arrhythmia take into account the intensity of the signs of arrhythmias:

  1. The appearance of moderate symptoms (weakness, shortness of breath, dizziness) during exercise (category 2 – partially fit).
  2. Symptoms of arrhythmia in low physical activity (category 3 – unfit).
  3. Severe symptoms even in case of complete inaction (category 4 – exempt from military service).

Insights

  1. Summarizing all the above that it is sinus bradycardia the heart and how to treat it, it can be argued that this violation cannot be ignored.
  2. Slow heart rate in many cases is a normal condition in the absence of pathological conditions. It does not cause significant concern and does not require special treatment.
  3. If delayed heartbeat accompanies any progressive disease, you should consult a doctor to identify the causes and assign the required treatment. Procrastination, in this case, life threatening.