What is sinus tachycardia of the heart what are the symptoms in adults, children and pregnancy, treatment?

сердце

Probably everyone at least once faced in your life with the palpitations.

Cardiologists often work with similar complaints and a diagnosis of “sinus tachycardia”.

Is it really dangerous and requires immediate treatment or is it a normal variant?

What is sinus tachycardia a heart?

сердце человекаAn attack of the disease begins on the backdrop of strong emotions, stress, physical work or lack of oxygen. It does not entail any negative consequences. Pulse returning to normal as soon as the stimulus disappears.

However, changing the speed of the heart is associated with several pathologies. Problems with the thyroid gland, diseases of the heart and blood vessels – all of which can affect the speed of the pulse, indicating the need for treatment.

The General concept and code in ICD 10

Take a look at what sinus tachycardia from the point of view of modern cardiology. In medicine it is characterized by a significant increase in heart rate.

Of the international classification of diseases (revision 10) separate code ICD 10 “sinus tachycardia” was deleted. The disease is classified as supraventricular tachycardia (nodal) and has a total code I47.1.

Depending on what caused the tachycardia, it is divided into:

  1. Pathological. In this case, there are significant changes in the circulatory system, as well as in the myocardium. If you increase the speed of the heart chambers do not have time to completely fill with blood. This causes poor circulation, and as a result anoxia occurs in the tissues of other organs. After a time there is enlargement of the heart and reduced contractility of the heart muscle. Develops cardiomyopathy. Also this form accompanies myocardial ischemia, this occurs due to poor blood flow in the coronary arteries. If the vessels are prone to atherosclerosis, the patient has the risk of myocardial infarction.
  2. Physiological. This kind of standards. The increase in heart rate is due to certain external factors: stress or physical activity. After cessation of exposure, heart rate (heart rate) returns to its original value. While there are no disorders in hemodynamics and changes in the heart muscle. The danger may lie only in the fact that the elevated heart rate can trigger a worsening of any other disease.

Release:

  • moderate form;
  • the expressed form.

Reasonable

To understand what moderate sinus tachycardia, it is important to determine the permissible heart rate. The pulse in this case varies in the range of from 90 to 135. No symptoms the patient feels. Most often the disease manifests itself under stress and loads.

Moderate sinus tachycardia often does not require treatment.

Expressed

When her heart rate increases significantly and ranges from 135 to 185 beats/minute. The patient may feel considerable weakness. Dizziness and loss of consciousness. The manifestation of such symptoms is recommended to be sure to see a doctor for further testing.

Sinus tachycardia in severe form may be the result of pathology.

синусовая тахикрадия на ЭКГ

Tachycardia sinus on ECG

In adults

Experts, having examined what the sinus tachycardia and the reasons for its occurrence in adults, found that the increase in heart rate can be:

  • in a condition of normal;
  • in the result of any pathology.

As soon as the brain and autonomic regulation become more Mature, the symptoms of adolescent tachycardia may disappear completely or, conversely, manifest to a large extent.

Special attention should be paid to the increase in heart rate in the elderly.

During pregnancy

Established that even if a woman has no disorders in the cardiovascular system, may develop diseases of the sinus tachycardia in pregnancy. This is not a physiological norm and could be attributed to a number of quite logical reasons:

  • in women during pregnancy increases the volume of blood flow, due to the increasing size of the uterus and the growth of the unborn child;
  • during pregnancy in women increases weight, which also affects the heart;
  • hormonal changes of the mother.

With each new month of pregnancy load on heart increases. The disease of moderate can go into the expressed. This disease requires very close monitoring especially in the third trimester as it can cause serious complications for both the mother and the fetus.

Adolescents

прием врачаCardiologists answering the question about what is sinus tachycardia in adolescents who tend to consider the problem not only from the pathological changes, but also from the point of view of the influence of intensive growth and development of all systems and organs in General.

Experts are constantly studying the disease and its causes at a young age. Most often it happens because of the peculiarities or disorders of the nervous system. Also, the disease is observed in patients with autonomic dysfunction. Thus any external influence, any emotional state can cause a seizure. Sinus tachycardia the teenager carries the following features:

  • sweating;
  • dizziness;
  • strong tremors.

The child

Sinus tachycardia in a child is common. It is meant for a significant increase in heart rate, while sinus rhythm is not changed. In different age heart rate value varies from 90 to 180 per minute.

In children up to seven years, the accelerated heart rate is not considered a pathology. Sinus tachycardia in a child of 1 year often has physiological causes and goes away after some time.

The changes in heart rate cause:

  • fever (a temperature increase of 1 degree causes an increase in heart rate by 10-15 beats);
  • immaturity of the nervous system;
  • defects in the development of the heart;

Sinus tachycardia in children requires careful monitoring in order not to miss serious breaches in health and development.

The newborn

врач осматривает новорожденногоThe pulse of the child depends on the age. The baby’s heart rate normal can be 140 beats per minute.

Sinus tachycardia in the newborn is almost always a normal physiological phenomenon that does not require medical intervention.

Reasons

With the disease of sinus tachycardia causes may be different. There is no accepted division:

  1. Cardiac. These include:
    • heart failure;
    • inflammatory processes, they may have an infectious or autoimmune origin;
    • ischemic heart disease;
    • congenital and acquired heart defects;
    • cardiomyopathy.
  2. Not associated with heart problems:
    • disruption of the endocrine glands;
    • neuroses, psychoses and other neurogenic diseases.
  3. Lack of oxygen can cause an increase in heart rate.
  4. Some drugs can cause an attack of palpitation.

Vertebral nature of the disease

A tachycardia can be caused by problems with the spine. Vertebral sinus tachycardia is diagnosed when the following symptoms:

  • the increase in heart rate occurs at turns or bends;
  • while for a long time in an awkward position may develop an attack;
  • in addition to changes in heart rate are other symptoms indicating problems with the spinal column;
  • coughing or sneezing increases the speed of the heartbeat.

Symptoms

Doctor examining patient’s sinus tachycardia, carefully studying the symptoms of the disease, ascertain the reason that caused it, and assigns the appropriate treatment.

Sometimes when the disease, sinus tachycardia symptoms may not be at all.

боль в области сердцаSometimes the patient complains of mild discomfort localized inside the chest, palpitations and minor aches and pains.

With an increase of the disease symptoms become more specific and cause significant discomfort.

When the disease is possible:

  • not passing strong sensations frequent palpitations;
  • the feeling of lack of air and shortness of breath even at rest;
  • fatigue;
  • constant fatigue;
  • pain in the heart;
  • constant feeling of irritation, insomnia and anxiety.

A distinctive feature is the gradual increase of the symptoms. Very often the patient is not able to fix the start time of the attack.

When the pulse is high enough, the patient begins to experience heart palpitations. If the attack continues for a long time it is possible to observe the pale skin, decrease in urine output and lower blood pressure. Possible panic attacks and status concerns.

Signs on ECG

The disease can be diagnosed by ECG results. This is the main diagnostic criterion to accurately identify the disease.

To diagnose diseases sinus tachycardia on ECG there are the following symptoms:

  • Heart rate over 90 beats per minute;
  • maintaining sinus rhythm, while the prong P comes before ventricular complex;
  • QRS is not broken;
  • the gap between the prongs R, reduced;
  • the size of the T waves is above or below normal.

For a more accurate diagnosis of the disease is sinus tachycardia ECG doing under load. For example, the patient is asked to squat or use special equipment. ECG removed before and after exercise. If attacks happen rarely and they last a short time, for the diagnosis, the doctor may prescribe daily monitoring.

Treatment

таблетки For timely diagnosis of an adult should know what is sinus tachycardia and whether it is dangerous. For effective treatment of angina first need to find out the cause of it calling. In addition to relief of symptoms must be addressed, and what triggers palpitations.

Physiological tachycardia does not require treatment. The treatment of pathological forms of the disease deals with the cardiologist. If a patient diagnosed with sinus tachycardia, for advice on “how to treat” should refer to such specialists as endocrinologist, neurologist, psychotherapist.

How to treat?

After the confirmed diagnosis of sinus tachycardia treatment is prescribed by a doctor, but the patient must first change your lifestyle and habits.

Successful treatment must:

  1. To abandon bad habits.
  2. Exclude all caffeinated products.
  3. Remove the spices from the diet.
  4. Eating requires a fractionally small meals at least 5-6 times a day.
  5. To establish a balance between work and wholesome recreational activities.
  6. More walk in the fresh air.
  7. Try to avoid stressful situations and excessive stress on the nervous system.

This is enough to physiological tachycardia ceased to bother the patient. But if the problem is caused by any of the pathologies or diseases, no serious treatment is not enough.

Drugs

Treatment of sinus tachycardia with medications aimed at eliminating the root cause of the disease:

  1. Increased function of the thyroid gland. In this case, the patient shows acceptance of thyreostatics (for example, Merkazolil). Additionally physician may prescribe beta-blockers (e.g. Pindolol) or calcium antagonists (Verapamil) for normalizing heart rhythm.
  2. For anemia. Prescribe drugs that increase the content of iron in the blood (ferrum-Lek). Good effect give vitamins and minerals. In this case the means for additional correction of the heart rate are assigned rarely.
  3. In chronic heart failure prescribed beta-blockers and cardiac glycosides (Clanid).

If drug treatment is ineffective, the patient may be recommended a surgical intervention.

What is dangerous?

экг мужчинеMany patients do not understand what sinus tachycardia and how it is dangerous. Physiological tachycardia danger to health is not. But the pathological form, if it is not timely treated, can cause a number of serious complications.

When experiencing palpitations significantly increases the wear and tear of the heart. The ventricles do not have time to fill with blood and speed of heart muscle increases. This leads to a shortage of oxygen in tissues and organs. This may develop ischemic lesions of the heart and brain.

Take the army with such a diagnosis?

Recruits and their relatives do not always know whether to hire them into the army with a diagnosis of “sinus tachycardia”. By itself, a tachycardia is not a contraindication to conscription. Exemption is given to those recruits who have the disease is accompanied by other serious concomitant diseases. For example, conscription is invalid in rheumatoid diseases involving cardiac insufficiency.

Increased heart rate paroxysmal type differs from sinus sudden acute onset of the attack and abrupt cessation. The heart rate may reach 300 beats per minute.

Ventricular

The disease is almost always accompanied by serious lesions of the heart muscle. In this case there is a violation of intracardiac and external blood flow. If untreated can cause death of the patient.

Supraventricular

Arrhythmia caused by a violation of electrical conductivity and regulation of heart rate. Manifests itself in 95% of cases of all arrhythmias. Can cause arrhythmogenic collapse and heart failure.

Conclusion

  1. Despite the fact that many people increased heart rate caused due to understandable natural causes and goes after the cessation of loading, we can not relax. The increase in heart rate may be the result of severe pathologies that require examination and treatment.
  2. It is important to remember that unlike paroxysmal, attack in this case is slow, and its beginning is easy to miss.
  3. In addition to problems with the heart, increase heart rate can cause disorders of the nervous and endocrine systems. For correct treatment in this case may need to consult the relevant professionals.
  4. Many do not understand what sinus tachycardia and what unpleasant consequences it can cause and seek medical attention too late.
  5. The disease is not a sentence. After timely diagnosis and right treatment the quality of life does not deteriorate.