The phlebitis is an inflammation of the venous wall. Phlebitis fast enough transformirovalsya more terrible disease — thrombophlebitis, when in the lumen of the inflamed vessel causes blood clots. It is therefore important to identify the phlebitis, in order to prevent further progression of the disease.
Inflammation of a vein developing under the influence of various adverse factors. Phlebitis mainly occurring on the background of existing varicose veins. This contributes to circulatory disorders that occur with varicose veins.
Additionally, phlebitis can be caused by different microorganisms, mainly strepto— and Staphylococcus. Germs get into the vein in the presence of purulent wounds or infectious disease.
Phlebitis develops when the chemical burns to the veins when the vessel entered an aggressive medicines and substances. Cause phlebitis is capable of hypertonic solutions (calcium chloride, 40% glucose solution). Inflammation of the vein leads to introduction of non – “artisanal drugs” when their preparation using various solvents and household chemicals.
Contribute to the development of phlebitis and direct injury to the venous wall during catheterization and prolonged intravenous introduction of drugs.
Depending on the placement of the inflammatory process in the venous wall are distinguished:
- Periflebit — affected outer sheath of the vein. Caused by spread of inflammation from surrounding tissue on the vessel wall.
- Endoplamic — affected the inner membrane of the veins. Often occurs when you damage the inner lining of the vein, for example, during catheterization of the vessel.
- Panfluit — it affects all the lining of the venous wall.
The symptoms of phlebitis
Inflammation of veins can occur in any area of the body, but most often occurs in the legs. Veins of lower extremities are superficial and deep. The defeat of those or other vessels is accompanied by certain symptoms.
Phlebitis of the lower extremities
In acute superficial phlebitis of the affected Vienna palpably tense, painful. The patient may notice that the skin over this area is red, hot, and in the course of the affected vein visible red stripes. In rare cases, a person might be bothered by the fever, weakness.
In the absence of the treatment of acute superficial phlebitis disease transformirovalsya I chronic. In chronic superficial phlebitis symptoms are less pronounced. Periods remitting disease alternate with exacerbations.
In acute deep phlebitis in the inflamed veins there is pain and swelling of the relevant section of the legs. The skin becomes pale, even white. In most cases this disease is accompanied by fever, malaise, weakness.
Phlebitis of the upper extremities
Phlebitis on the hand is often called injection. The title already clear that he was provoked by intravenous injection in the arm. Increase of pain in the puncture of the vein should alert the person, it can indicate the beginning of the injection phlebitis.
The first symptom of phlebitis is redness at the injection site or installation of the catheter. Soon, the redness spreading from the site of injection in the course of the inflamed vein. Arm swollen. There may be a rise in temperature, the appearance of weakness, increase in the axillary and ulnar lymph nodes.
Migratory phlebitis is also known as allergic wandering phlebitis and belongs to the group of systemic vasculitis. The disease is often accompanied by autoimmune diseases, some cancer, infectious diseases, allergic reactions. Ill mostly young men.
Migratory phlebitis is characterized by lesions of veins the lower and upper extremities. It begins with the fact that in the course of the superficial veins of the legs occur dense strands of varying lengths. The skin over the affected vessel is red, swollen and painful. It is noteworthy that these changes occur alternately on different veins, as if the inflammation “jumps” from one vein to another. Sometimes there may be inflammation of the various veins, like the arm and leg.
Often, the General condition of the patient is not suffering, can only increase the temperature. But when multiple lesions of the veins of the person may feel weakness, malaise.
Cerebral phlebitis and pylephlebitis
Cerebral phlebitis (inflammation of veins blood vessels of the brain) occur headache with nausea and vomiting, neurological symptoms such as speech disorders, altered consciousness, unsteadiness of gait, paresis of the extremities, seizures.
Pylephlebitis caused by spread to the portal vein with surrounding inflammation inflammation of the abdominal cavity (Appendix). A pathological condition characterized by fever, severe weakness, jaundice, pain in the right side. This is a very dangerous disease that can even lead to death.
The treatment of phlebitis
To effectively deal with phlebitis manage with conservative treatment methods. However, therapeutic interventions should be implemented as early as possible in order to prevent transformation in phlebitis thrombophlebitis. By conservative methods include drug therapy, physical therapy and wearing compression hosiery.
In the presence of phlebitis, it is important to identify the cause of pathological state. If phlebitis is caused by an infection, the patient is prescribed antibiotics. In other cases, medical treatment includes the administration of such drugs:
- NSAIDs (Ibuprofen, Ketones) to eliminate the inflammation and pain;
- Drugs that improve the microcirculation (Actovegin, Pentoxifylline, Trental);
- Drugs that reduce the viscosity of blood (Aspirin, Cardiomagnyl) — prevent the formation of blood clots;
- Means for topical treatment (ointment Troksevazin, Phenomena, heparin ointment, Lioton Gel).
When injection phlebitis, as a rule, limited to applying to the affected arm compresses with ointment (heparin, Troxevasin, Phenomena, Lioton Gel). These medications reduce swelling, anti-inflammatory effect, prevents the formation of blood clots.
In phlebitis the patient, the doctor may recommend physiotherapy. This can be laser therapy, magnetotherapy, mud packs, infrared radiation. Physiotherapy is an auxiliary treatment that is at the correct destination may result in a speedy recovery.
The effect of physical treatments aimed at improving the metabolic processes in cells, decrease inflammation. In addition, physiotherapy reduces swelling of the soft tissues and relieves pain.
The lifestyle change
A healthy lifestyle plays a significant role in the fight against phlebitis. To ensure the normal circulation in the legs need to be active and play sports. Patients with phlebitis also recommend lying on your back lift your legs and hold them for a few minutes. This position helps blood flow and prevents stagnation in the lower extremities.
An aggravating factor for development of phlebitis is Smoking. So for those of you who want to get rid of phlebitis (or to prevent its occurrence) you need to give up the habit.
A staunch ally of patients with phlebitis can be considered as compression stockings or an elastic bandage. Wearing compression hosiery helps to avoid stagnation of venous blood in the legs and blood clots in the future.
Valery Grigorov, medical columnist