Details about blood pressure and hypertension.

Подробности об артериальном давлении и гипертонии.

The third part of the adult population — high blood pressure – these are the who data, published in 2012. Moreover, the increase in the incidence of hypertension (high blood pressure) often occurs in economically developed countries. Why? Doctors believe: the reason that humans dramatically changed their way of life.

Physical labor is replaced by office work, where a person spends all day in a seated position, and in moments of relaxation according to the custom of a Cup of coffee and a cigarette. If 20 years ago, hypertension was a disease of only the elderly, but now it became “younger”. And the reason for its development in 90% of cases remains unknown, as no organic and physiological damage to the systems regulating blood pressure. Doctors point out just some of the factors that can cause hypertension.

What should be the blood pressure:

Blood pressure (A/D) is an important parameter characterizing the activity of the human circulatory system. It shows the force with which blood flow exerts on the walls of large and small vessels and depends on the degree of tension of the walls and volume of blood.

Pressure is measured in millimeters of mercury and is written usually as two numbers, for example, 129/84. The two figures represent two phases of the heart – systole and diastole. When the heart is thrown into the vessels blood pressure rises, it is called systolic (upper). When the heart relaxes, it fills with blood and the minimum pressure, called the diastolic (bottom). The upper pressure said of the heart – the higher the number, the worse and more frequent heart beats. Lower blood pressure says about the work of the kidney that regulate vascular tone. If the figure is excessively high, it indicates kidney pathology.

The increased blood pressure is considered normal if it is equal 120-129 / 80-84 mm Hg. article But the numbers 90/60 or 139/89 can not be considered a deviation if they are permanent and the person feels fine. Some people have an innate predisposition to low or high blood pressure, and it does not adversely affect health. In this regard, doctors use the term “working pressure”, which is normal for a particular person. For example, if a person has a working pressure of 90/60 when pressure is 130/80, he will feel very bad and on the contrary, if the working pressure is 130/80, then the indicator 90/60 it will have poor health. It is therefore very important to know its operating pressure, otherwise it will be difficult to find the cause of poor health.

Change in blood pressure:

Under the influence of many factors, blood pressure changes even in a healthy person. For example, at high physical exertion the heart of man is hard at work, resulting in the vessels increases the pressure. Conversely, during sleep or rest the normal rate of blood pressure becomes lower.

Also, the pressure in the vessel decreases with a sharp transition from horizontal to vertical, which can cause dizziness.

Significantly higher than normal blood pressure rises during emotional tension and stress. At this time, the adrenaline released into the blood and forces the heart to work harder than normal.

The change in blood pressure affects every cigarette you smoke and drinking in excess of: a portion of the alcohol or a strong Cup of coffee. This is a short, but very strong increase in pressure, as heart rate is accelerated and may cause a spasm of the blood vessels.

Time of year also affects the change in blood pressure. Hot summer from the body together with then excreted excess moisture, the vessels dilate and pressure drops. And in winter because of the cold constricts blood vessels, and of course the pressure increases.

As soon as it stops the effects on the body of a healthy person of these factors, the self-regulation system returns blood pressure to normal. But this system for some reason does not work and then the change of blood pressure becomes pathological. The reasons are:

— heredity – how heredity affects the mechanism of development of hypertension doctors not able to explain;

— diseases leading to persistent increase in A/D impaired renal function, heart disease, excess thyroid hormones and adrenal glands;

— obesity – is known to every kilogram of excess weight actually increases the pressure level of 2 units;

— excessive salt in the diet – sodium chloride retains water in the body thus increasing the pressure;

— chronic stress destroys the mechanism of adaptation;

— sedentary lifestyle – for cardiovascular system need regular exercise.

What is dangerous high blood pressure:

High blood pressure systematic doctors call hypertension if at least three-fold level A/D — 140/90. Hypertension is the defeat of all organs and primarily affects the heart, kidneys and the brain.

Under the action of the increased pressure decreases the elasticity of blood vessels, they thicken, lengthen, they warp and bend. As a result, blood flow is impaired, tissues and organs is poorly provided with nutrients and oxygen. The heart starts working harder, his strength depleted, and develops chronic heart failure.

More sensitive to the increase in A/D the nerve cells, they die, even at the initial stage of hypertension. In the vessels of the brain is the formation of small aneurysms, which are like time bombs, at any moment can rupture and hemorrhaging. On the site of aneurysm rupture the scar is formed, it deforms the vessel and disturbed blood flow.

And for the normal renal function steady blood flow is essential. If the pressure of blood in the vessels inadequate, then the kidneys secrete the enzyme renin, which constricts blood vessels and increases the pressure. And so the vicious circle – lack of blood supply reduces the function of the kidneys, but they continue to secrete enzymes that increase blood pressure.

Hypertension is insidious because for a long time does not manifest itself by any symptoms and high blood pressure damages health quickly. The result can be angina, a heart attack, stroke, loss of vision, memory, etc. So it is very important to control blood pressure and at the first sign of feeling unwell consult a doctor. Signs of increased pressure similar to the effects of fatigue is the reduction of efficiency, loss of sleep, recurring headaches, dizziness and pain in the heart area.

Prevention of hypertension:

Hypertension is a very serious disease and the best prevention is a healthy lifestyle with proper nutrition and moderate physical load.

Diet for prevention of hypertension: If you reduce the caloric content of the diet, then this will not only weight decrease, but blood pressure levels. Sacrifice their own health is to bring sweet, salty, fat, smoked and flour food. To reduce to a reasonable minimum strong tea and coffee, increase the pressure. The diet should include more fruits and vegetables that contain magnesium and potassium. These minerals strengthen the heart muscle and the nervous system, preventing spasm in the blood vessels, improve excretory function of the kidneys.

Physical exercise for prevention of hypertension: Recommended restorative exercises, breathing exercises, walking, swimming and classes at the gym without fanaticism. Need to do a little every day, increasing the load gradually. After a workout you need to rest, and in the evening to create favorable conditions for a sound and restful sleep. Regular physical activity produces endurance, normalizes blood pressure, improves sleep.

Another vital necessity for the prevention of hypertension is to prevent psycho-emotional stress. As mentioned above, when a negative emotion occurs an abrupt release of adrenaline and increased blood pressure.

Practice shows that non-pharmacological prevention of hypertension is very effective. Constant monitoring of blood pressure by 80% reduces cases of stroke by 50% — the number of heart attacks, significantly reduces the development of renal and heart failure, increases the life expectancy of 10 years or more. Be healthy!