Thrombophilia is a disease associated with disruption of the normal functioning of blood vessels and blood clotting, characterized by an increased risk of thrombosis. The progression of the pathological process and the lack of adequate medical care increases the risk of developing numerous dangerous complications and even death of the patient.
Please note: thrombophilia is a common pathology. According to statistics, from this disease affects about 40% of the world population!
This violated the processes of normal blood clotting and to prevent bleeding, the body thickens the blood, which, in fact, leads to thrombogenesis.
The intrigue and danger of the disease is that the patient a long time does not know about the problem and appealed for help to the doctor only in the later stages of the disease process with manifestations that are typical for thrombosis.
The types of thrombophilia
According to the existing classification, experts distinguish two types of thrombophilia:
- primary – caused by disorders of hemostasis associated with insufficient or too high blood clotting;
- secondary – caused by disorders of cellular structures within the blood.
It is important! Thrombophilia usually occurs in the chronic form. Clinical signs are manifested in the period of exacerbation of the disease, and it is important to be able to identify them at the initial stages of the pathological process!
What triggers the development of disease?
Causes of thrombophilia are very diverse.
According to doctors, to trigger the development of thrombophilia can the following factors:
- genetic predisposition;
- pathology of the hematopoietic and circulatory systems, blood disorders, cardiac defects, erythremia;
- traumatic injuries of the vessels and transferred the patient to the surgical intervention;
- prolonged and uncontrolled use of certain drugs;
- liver disease;
- heart attacks and strokes, pathology of the cardiovascular nature.
- varicose veins;
- the passage of chemotherapy;
- sedentary lifestyle, lack of physical activity;
It is important! To trigger the development of thrombophilia in women can prolonged use of birth control pills hormonal in nature, not prescribed by the treating physician.
The causes of thrombophilia are largely associated with the congenital pathology or acquired.
In congenital disease the disruption of normal hemostasis due to the presence in the body of specific genes that are inherited and lead to disorders of blood clotting.
Thrombophilia acquired type may develop as a complication after the transfer of a patient such diseases as diabetes, pneumonia, trombozitoze, processes, autoimmune and Oncology areas.
Features of thrombophilia in pregnant women
Quite often, the thrombophilia seen in women in the period of waiting for a baby. Usually, this is due to a genetic predisposition of a patient to thrombophilia, and the mechanism of the pathological process is triggered as a result of certain changes of a physiological nature, occurring in the body of the expectant mother.
The placental circulation provides the additional load, besides, of a woman expecting a baby, there is an increase of blood clotting (so body is protected from the development of uterine bleeding during childbirth). All these factors can cause thrombophilia in a pregnant!
It is important! During pregnancy, the risk of thrombosis, according to doctors, is vastly increased. Therefore, the expectant mother diagnosed with thrombophilia should be particularly careful, she should be under the strict supervision of a specialist.
The development of thrombophilia during pregnancy can lead to the development of such dangerous complications such as miscarriage, placental abruption, eclampsia, premature onset of labor process and the birth of a premature or dead baby.
In order to avoid undesirable consequences, the patient must undergo the full therapeutic course aimed at addressing the characteristic painful symptoms and preventing the development of complications!
Symptoms of thrombophilia
Thrombophilia is distinguished by a smooth, gradual development, so for a long period of time can occur almost asymptomatic.
However, this pathology is characterized by the following common clinical features:
- the development of pain syndrome, pain in the chest that occur during the Commission of a breath;
- rapid pulse (tachycardia);
- cough with excretion of bloody sputum and difficulty breathing, the development of shortness of breath;
- numbness of the lower extremities;
- fatigue, weakness and General malaise;
- the slowness of mental reactions.
It should be noted that in most cases, all of the above symptoms will be out for the patient, as a result of thrombus formation.
Note: the brightness of the painful symptomatology associated with thrombophilia depends on the size of the thrombus, its location and influence on the General circulation!
In any case, any detection of clinical signs indicating the presence of thrombophilia, is needed urgently to see a specialist. Comprehensive diagnosis and appropriate treatment will help prevent further progression of the pathological process, the development of accompanying diseases and complications.
What is the danger of disease?
Thrombophilia is an extremely dangerous pathology. It may cause sudden death of the patient even in the youngest age!
Among the most common complications that may cause disease deserve special attention:
It is important! The broken thrombus sometimes causes rapid death, without showing any symptoms. That is why a thrombophilia should be treated, and the sooner will be conducted in therapeutic activities, the higher the chances of achieving favorable results.
For the diagnosis of “thrombophilia”, doctors prescribe to patients the following tests:
- laboratory blood the determination of clotting;
- ultrasound examination of blood vessels;
- venographically research;
- the conduct of contrast arteriography;
- computer and magnetic resonance tomography.
Such complex diagnostics allows not only to detect the presence of thrombophilia, but also to set the size of the clots, their localization. This will help assign the most effective, most suitable for a particular patient’s therapeutic course!
The treatment of thrombophilia
In the initial stages of the pathological process to combat thrombophilia use methods drug therapy.
In most cases, treatment involves the appointment of such medications:
- drugs disaggregants;
- anticoagulants, which are aimed at preventing the formation of blood clots;
- drugs fibrinolytic nature, which are injected directly into the area affected and clogged by a blood clot vessel;
- drugs that strengthen the vascular walls;
- drugs folic acid (used in thrombophilia congenital nature, caused by genetic factors, prevention of thrombosis).
Note: a good therapeutic effect on thrombophilia gives the procedure a blood transfusion or blood plasma, as well as trombozitopoez.
An important role in the fight against thrombophilia plays adherence to the therapeutic diet recommended by the patient’s doctor.
In order to prevent further blood clot formation, patients must exclude from your daily diet the following products with a high content of cholesterol:
- fatty meats and fish, fats of animal origin;
- offal, fat, milk, liver;
- fried foods and fatty meats, strong broths;
- chocolate, coffee;
- hard cheese varieties.
Menu of a patient with thrombophilia is recommended enrich such useful products:
It is important! For normalization of indicators of blood coagulation in thrombophilia, it is important to observe the correct drinking regime, eating during the day at least 2.5 liters of fluid (preference should be given clean water, herbal teas and decoctions, stewed dried fruit).
To increase the effectiveness of treatment of thrombophilia and accelerate the healing process in that case, if the patient will strictly adhere to the following advice:
- to massage the affected areas;
- to take a daily walk in the fresh air;
- to swim (in pools and ponds);
- to do physical therapy;
- strictly follow doctor’s orders regarding diet, daily regimen and medicines;
- use elastic bandages;
- wear the compression garment;
- to avoid heavy lifting;
- to have an active lifestyle, but try to avoid spending time in a standing position.
To avoid the development and recurrence of thrombophilia, patients need to comply with preventive recommendations:
- to have an active lifestyle and exercise;
- properly, balanced diet, reducing to minimum performance content in daily diet of fatty, smoked and fried foods;
- to undergo regular prophylactic examinations by specialists;
- to fight obesity;
- to avoid overheating and General overcooling of an organism;
- not to take drugs hormonal content (including contraception) without prescription of the attending physician;
- monitor blood pressure and cholesterol.
Important! During planning pregnancy, the expectant mother must pass a comprehensive medical examination, including the determination of platelet counts and elimination of thrombophilia. The detection of this disease, it is recommended full therapeutic course before conception of the baby!
Successful struggle with thrombophilia should be comprehensive, including methods of physical therapy, the observance of the principles of diet, physiotherapy and drug therapy. Only with this approach can achieve stable positive results of the treatment, avoiding the development of characteristic complications and possible recurrence of the disease!
Becic, Julia, doctor, medical commentator