In our days there is a large assortment of various means for protection from unwanted pregnancy. After all, modern women can’t afford every year to give birth to the child, as did her great-grandmother. What methods of contraception to choose? This question can be solved only by a gynecologist, to evaluate the overall health of the patient, the presence of gynecological diseases, age, number of partners and other factors. In choosing a contraceptive method you should not rely on the advice of friends.
Modern contraceptive methods can be divided into the following groups:
- Emergency (post-coital).
- Surgical (sterilization).
Barrier methods of contraception.
Barrier methods of contraception are the most traditional and old. They prevent the contact of sperm with the female sex organs. This group includes the condom, vaginal diaphragm, cervical caps, contraceptive sponge. Their efficiency is 96%.
- local action;
- the almost complete absence of contraindications and side effects;
- protection against infections that are transmitted sexually.
They contain spermicidal substances that destroy sperm or inhibit their activity. Available in candles, creams, aerosols (pharmatex). The efficiency reaches 80% when used correctly. This group also include vaginal douching after intercourse, acetic, boric or citric acid.
- ease of use;
- protection against some infections;
- additional moisture during sex;
- possible use in lactation.
- the relatively low efficiency;
- the need to use before each act of intercourse;
- may result in irritation of the penis or the vaginal mucosa;
- when using them not to wash with soap and water.
This group includes calendar, temperature, cervical, and sympto-method. Their efficiency is about 60%. The calendar method of contraception is based on the fact that ovulation occurs 14 days before the next menstrual period with a cycle duration of 28 days. During the ovulation period need to abstain from sex or use barrier methods.
Be aware that sperm in the woman’s body live up to 8 days, and the egg after ovulation is 24 hours.
This method cannot be applied in an irregular cycle.
Thermal method involves daily measurement of temperature in the rectum immediately after waking up in the morning. During ovulation, temperatures rise, and this suggests that you need to abstain from sex for 5 days.
Cervical method is based on changes in consistency of cervical (cervical) mucus. In the period before ovulation, the discharge becomes abundant, bright, mucus can be stretched between the index finger and thumb to 8-10 cm the Egg comes out the day after the disappearance of mucus.
Sympto-method combines three previous biological method, and also includes control of symptoms of ovulation (pain in the abdomen, bleeding).
Hormonal methods of contraception
Hormonal contraceptives contain synthetic versions of female sex hormones, which cause reversible changes in a woman’s body to prevent pregnancy, for example, inhibit ovulation.
Are available in the form of tablets, drugs for intramuscular injection (run 1 every 90 days), implants which are filed under the skin on the shoulder (valid 90 days), patches, which are glued to the belly (changed every 7 days).
Their efficiency is very high (about 99%). In parallel with the contraceptive they normalize the menstrual cycle, reduce the symptoms of acne, reduce the risk of gynecological diseases, improve libido, eliminate abdominal pain during menstruation.
However, they have a systemic effect on the body and have a negative impact on the cardiovascular, endocrine system, metabolism, liver and some other organs.
Pills must be taken regularly, it is necessary to consider their interaction with other medicines the possibility of side effects.
Tools for emergency contraception
Post-coital contraception, is the use of hormonal preparations within 24 hours after intercourse to prevent pregnancy (Postinor). These funds cannot be used continuously (not more than 1 time in 2-3 months), as they affect the entire body and cause ovarian dysfunction.
Into the uterine cavity introduces a spiral that prevent fertilization and implantation. Modern spirals are made on a polymeric basis with the addition of metals and hormones. They are set by the gynecologist in the first week of the menstrual cycle. The period of use should not exceed 5 years. This method of prevention of unwanted pregnancy is indicated for women who have a regular partner and do not suffer from chronic gynecological diseases.
- efficiency 98%;
- long-term effect;
- not require constant monitoring.
- introduction and removal is carried out only by a physician;
- increases the risk of inflammatory processes in the pelvis;
- worse menstrual pain and discharge;
- increased risk of ectopic pregnancy;
- contributes to the gradual depletion of the endometrium.