Supported by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (grant U01HD062417) and the Emergency Medical Services for Children Network Development Demonstration Program of the Maternal and Child Health Bureau, Health Resources and Services Administration, under cooperative agreement (awards U03MC00008, U03MC00001, U03MC00003, U03MC00006, U03MC00007, U03MC22684, and U03MC22685).
Disclosure forms provided by the authors are available with the full text of this article at NEJM.org.
No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.
The content and conclusions of this article are those of the authors and should not be construed as the official position or policy of, nor should any endorsements be inferred by, the Health Resources and Services Administration, the Department of Health and Human Services, or the U.S. government.
We thank Marci Fjelstad and Amy Watson from the PECARN Data Coordinating Center for their assistance; the research coordinators in PECARN, without whom this trial would not have been possible; the clinicians in PECARN who enrolled children into this trial; the members of the data and safety monitoring board (Roger Lewis, M.D., Ph.D., Jeffrey Blumer, M.D., Ph.D., Andrew Bremer, M.D., Ph.D., Thomas Cook, Ph.D., and Beth Slomine, Ph.D., A.B.P.P.); and the members of the study outcome adjudication committee (Kathleen Meert, M.D., Jerry Zimmerman, M.D., Ph.D., and Robert Hickey, M.D.).