Tapeworms are a group of worms that are parasitic in the human intestine. For them is characteristic the presence of long ribbon-like body that is divided into many small segments. The front end of the tapeworm has a head (scolex), it is equipped with specific organs, providing attachment of the parasite to the walls of the internal organs.
As the considered kind of worms is only a parasitic way of life, the nervous system and the digestive organs they are very poorly developed. But the sexual system is developed just fine, each segment includes genitals, which provides tapeworms high fertility and resistance to various influences.
To the class of tapeworms are: dwarf tapeworm, tapeworm, beef tapeworm, broad tapeworm and pork tapeworm.
This is one of the largest representatives of the class cestodes that parasitize the human body — there are data that indicate ten individuals of the bovine tapeworm. Adult bovine tapeworm live in the intestines of humans, and their larva in striated muscle of cattle.
The parasite is able to sampledatabase, and to bring out the eggs, four or five of the last segments break off the worm and leave the body together with feces. It is precisely known (in the laboratory conducted research), in a separated segment has up to two hundred eggs of bullish tapeworm.
Beef tapeworm in the human body, causes disease beef tapeworm infection. Contracting under consideration by the class representative tapeworms easy enough – for example, this can occur by eating beef that has not passed sufficient heat treatment. Once in the digestive tract of humans, bovine tapeworm larvae begin to move and fixed only in the small intestine. There they have the most favorable conditions, and after 3 months of bullish tapeworm reaches adult age. It is noteworthy that one tapeworm can live in the body for several years.
The symptoms of beef tapeworm infection:
Note: symptoms of infection of bullish tapeworm quite similar with symptoms of pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas), cholecystitis (inflammation of gallbladder) and appendicitis. So the doctor when referring to him patients with the above clinical picture, be sure to send it to an examination regarding presence/absence of helminth infection.
The treatment of beef tapeworm infection is the elimination of the worm from the human body and elimination of dyspeptic symptoms. In the treatment of Bithionol used in combination with Fenasalom that are taken once on an empty stomach. In some cases, the treatment involves taking antihistamines – worms can cause severe allergic reaction.
To prevent contamination of bullish tapeworm is easy enough: you must eat only well-cooked/cooked beef.
This parasite is a leader in gradation of sizes tapeworms. According to the literature, there have been instances that have reached a length of 25 meters! The external structure of the broad tapeworm is the same as in other cestodes.
Consider the type of ribbon worms is the cause of civillisation – a disease which develops when infected by the human broad tapeworm larvae. Infection occurs, if people often consume raw and/or dried fish. The eggs of this parasite Matures in the water, the result of maturation becomes education of Coricidin – larvae, which can be absolutely free to live in the water for a long time. To complete formation of the larvae, it is necessary to get inside crustacean called Cyclops, which serves as food for fish. The most dangerous for infection with larvae of the broad tapeworm is considered a pike, omul and perch in these fish are often found the larvae of this species of tape worm.
Symptoms of penetration in the human broad tapeworm:
- recurrent, paroxysmal pain in the abdomen;
- signs of intoxication – General weakness, slight dizziness, slight increase in body temperature;
- dyspepsia – nausea, vomiting, various violations of the chair.
To expel worm from the human body, you will need to undergo specific treatment. Usually a tapeworm excreted after taking Fenasala, Praziquantel and its analogs.
As preventive measures, doctors recommend eating fish only after the full heat treatment and is strictly prohibited to drink unboiled water from natural reservoirs.
Unlike the pork tapeworm from the bull is that the first has a perfectly formed organs of attachment. Pork tapeworm has a head, which is equipped with suckers and hooks, so that is fixed by considering the form of the tapeworm to the intestinal wall firmly and permanently.
Human infection occurs in the event that if he eats pork, which is not subjected to heat treatment required. As a rule, in the human body a parasite, only one specimen of the pork tapeworm, and its lifespan averages 20 years. Is a “neighborhood” may trigger the development of the disease taeniasis, symptoms of which will manifest themselves mainly dyspeptic disorders. If the body has penetrated the larvae, it is likely to expect the development of cysticercosis are reported in brain and skeletal muscle, causing pain in muscle tissues and increased weakness. Often, the cysticercosis there are epileptic seizures.
Please note: with the blood of the cysticerci (the larvae of the pork tapeworm) can accumulate in any internal organ. Their localization depends on the clinical picture of the disease.
Therapeutic interventions in the identification of the pork tapeworm (adult) in the human body are the application of Praziquantel and Niclosamide. If, after examination, was diagnosed with cysticercosis, the doctor will prescribe Albendazole, Praziquantel, anti-epileptic drugs.
To preventive measures for the prevention of infection pork tapeworm include:
- eating pork after the quality heat treatment;
- in any case not to eat undercooked pork – you need to unsubscribe from the famous rare steak.
Length of the dwarf tapeworm is only 5 inches, its body is divided into segments, neck and head. To get the considered views of the tapeworm through dirty hands, household items, unwashed fruits and vegetables, unboiled water. The dwarf tapeworm can cause the development in humans of such diseases as geminilepidos.
Please note: the dwarf tapeworm does not cause dizziness, increased body temperature, allowing you to quickly and accurately differentiate the various diseases.
Treatment of gimenolepidoze (dwarf tapeworm infection) is the use of the drug Fenasala.
This is the most dangerous parasite. The Echinococcus has complex suspension system – powerful suction Cup 4 pieces, surrounded by hooks in two rows. Mature individuals parasitize many mammals – foxes, wolves, dogs and other. And tapeworm larvae of this species develop within the intermediate hosts are horses, pigs, goats and others. The human body is also the intermediate “base” for Echinococcus.
The larvae of this tapeworm are the stages of development inside the hydatid cyst, and it remains a challenging place outside the cyst shell is covered by a layered cuticle (its thickness can reach 1 cm), then the shell is germ (the internal embryo), which ensures a constant growth of the layered wall.
The symptoms echinococcosis
In medicine there are distinguished 4 stages of the course of the disease:
- Latent – asymptomatic, well-being is excellent.
- First – health problems are subjective and ill-defined character.
- The second objective symptoms occur abruptly and intensely.
- Third develop complications.
Clinical picture of the infection before the appearance of the tapeworm will depend on exactly where the internal organs located hydatid cysts.
The initial stage of the disease will manifest the following symptoms:
- fatigue from habitual stress;
- excessive and unexplained irritability;
- General weakness, increased sleepiness;
- periodic headaches;
- the fever, which is intermittent;
- rashes on the body, wearing a punctate character.
According to statistics, most often hydatid cysts formed in the liver. In this case, the patient will periodically feel pain in the right hypochondrium, show complaints of loss of appetite and violation of stool (diarrhea worried about). If the cyst compressed the bile ducts, then this leads to the development of obstructive jaundice.
Second on the “ranking” of the location of hydatid cysts of steel lungs. With this arrangement, parasitic neoplasms, patients complain of persistent pain in the chest, cough and shortness of breath, which are mainly present in the night time and have clarified the etiology. Cough with hydatid cysts in the lungs first and has a soft nature, is unproductive, but after some time begins to stand out phlegm with blood.
Note: symptoms of the presence of hydatid cysts are similar to signs of other diseases, so diagnosis will need to be patient for a complete examination. When the location of hydatid cysts in the lungs to make an accurate diagnosis after radiographs of the chest, performed in two projections.
Treatment of echinococcosis is possible only surgical, regardless of the organ affected with cysts. And, after accurate diagnosis treatment should be carried out urgently because any minute can develop one of these complications:
- massive infestation of tapeworm in the abdomen when rupture of the capsule;
- the development of septic process directly into the cyst;
- breakthrough of the cysts and release of its contents into the nearby organs.
Such complications are considered dangerous to human life and require urgent surgical intervention. But you should know that surgical treatment of hydatid cyst is contraindicated in diagnosed heart failure and deep functional disorders in the liver.
Treatment for tapeworm infection should be managed promptly, as these parasites pose a real danger to human life. If it is suspected the infection before the parasites, you should immediately seek professional medical help.
Yana Aleksandrovna Tsygankova, medical columnist, the therapist of the highest qualification category