Minerals are organic compounds essential for the healthy functioning of the human body. One of the most important mineral is fluorine. It is known that in the human body contains about three grams of this trace element.
Biological significance of fluorine
Fluoride provides complete forming and strengthening bone and tooth enamel. Indeed, in the body fluorine mainly concentrated in the bones and teeth. In addition, fluorine is involved in many biochemical reactions, and even in the process of hematopoiesis.
The daily requirement of the mineral is about 3.0 to 4.2 mg. the Main source of trace element, ironically, is drinking water. The trace element is contained in foods such as fish, liver, beef, lamb, rice, eggs, dairy, apples. However, with food a person receives only a small portion of fluoride.
Approximately 70-85% of the daily requirement of fluoride a person receives it with water. Therefore, it is difficult to overestimate the hygienic value of this microelement in the water. Considered to be the optimum concentration the rate of 1.0-1.5 mg/DM3. Prolonged use of water with insufficient or on the contrary excessive fluoride leads to certain disorders and diseases.
The reduction of fluoride in water
Water in natural water sources contain fluoride in varying amounts. In some regions, the trace element is contained in the water in much larger quantities, others in smaller. Long-term consumption of water with high or conversely low content of this trace element affects health.
So, drinking water with fluoride at the level below 0.5 mg/dm3 leads to disruption of organized gidroksiapatit, which are formed tooth enamel. This metamorphosis leads to a decrease in the strength of the enamel, due to which it becomes unstable to the action of lactic acid generated in the mouth from carbohydrates. Begins with the destruction of enamel and dentin, which is manifested by tooth decay.
If insufficient intake of fluoride suffer skeletal system. Gradually declining bone density, increasing their fragility that can result in fractures. As a result of violation of bone metabolism developing osteoporosis.
The increase of fluoride in the water
When the concentration of fluorine in potable water more than 1,5 mg/DM3 talking about his elevated levels. Long-term consumption of such water leads to loss of tooth enamel and the formation of fluorosis. Disease manifested by the appearance malovydne stripes, spots, erosions on the enamel, the destruction of the tooth crown.
Fluorosis is an endemic disease occurring in certain geographic regions, which are characterized by high level of fluoride in the water. There is a clear link between fluoride in water and the degree of damage torzewski diseases of people. Thus, when the concentration of fluoride in water at 1.1-1.5 mg/DM3 , the signs of fluorosis are observed in around 20% of the population. When the content of fluoride in water at 1.5-2 mg/DM3 mild forms of fluorosis have been recorded for 40% of the population. High concentration of fluoride (2-6 mg/DM3) causes the development of dental fluorosis in more than 40% of people, and the concentration of trace element in excess of 6 mg/DM3 — 80-100% of the population, but it has mostly severe forms of the disease.
Prolonged use of water with very high fluoride content may be affected by even the bone tissue with the development of skeletal fluorosis. This disease is manifested by osteosclerosis (seal bone structures), ossification of ligaments and cartilage. Large quantities of fluorine affects the human nervous system, and heart, kidney, liver.
Methods of correction of the level of fluoride in the water
In areas with fluoride in the water below the permissible limit produce fluoridation of tap water, that is, the saturation of its fluoride. The method does not affect organoleptic properties of water, taste and smell are not affected. To water fluoridation use special floratine installation for public water supply.
The purpose of this event is to reduce the incidence of caries among the population by adjusting the concentration of fluoride in tap water. To prevent the development of caries in communities with a low content of microelement local residents dentists also recommend the use of fluorine-containing toothpastes.
What activities are carried out in a situation exceeding the permissible concentration of fluoride in the water? Perhaps the most simple but inefficient method is to mix drinking water from individual sources with different trace element concentrations.
To more effectively reduce the content of fluoride in water are applying de. Utilities set decoratorname installation in the system of the centralized water supply system. Distinguish between filtration and chemical methods of de. Reagent methods are based on binding and adsorption of fluoride by aluminum hydroxides, magnesium. In the reaction, are formed and are deposited flake substances, which need to be removed then by filtration. The method of filtration consists in passing water through various filters (carbon, ion exchange).
There are also filtration devices for residential use, which can be installed in the apartment. The most effective are filters with osmotic membranes. These filters are installed under the sink and connect directly to the water pipe. Purified through the filters the water enters the tank under the sink, and then separately installed the faucet in the sink. Such a water purification system greatly improve the quality of drinking water.
Valery Grigorov, medical columnist