For the development of kidney stones takes time. The stones formed in the urine and gradually grow out of the salt crystals. Most commonly found oxalate of education that the structure is a salt of oxalic acid. Such findings in urine called oxaluria.
To prevent complications in the form of stagnation of urine and inflammation of the urinary organs is difficult and requires considerable effort for treatment may be surgical techniques. Therefore, it is important to notice the tendency to deposition of salts in the child. Because childhood is a right diet when oxaluria replaces all medicines and prevents metabolic disorders in growing up.
Features of oxalate stones
Oxalate stones are formed from crystals of the calcium salt of ammonium oxalate. The person receives the connection oxalic acid from food, especially when the preference of greens and fatty meat.
The crystals are sturdy and sharp edges in the form of spikes. To destroy them is difficult. The cut is often found layering, indicating that the accession of other chemical compounds. The color of the stone is brown-black. Sizes range from a few mm in diameter up to 5-6 cm In the localization in the renal pelvis Staghorn acquire the form and fill the entire cavity.
Urine of a healthy person has a slightly acid reaction. Metabolic disorders lead to acidification or alkalinisation. If disturbed acid-alkaline balance, the dissolved salts become first in crystalline form, then form stones (calculi). Oxalates precipitate with increasing pH, if the pH of urine becomes below 6.0.
In the human body are antagonistic substances that control the course of biochemical reactions, and the appearance of unwanted components is capable of communicating.
- enzymes are catalysts for chemical transformations;
- magnesium ions;
- the pyrophosphoric compound and citric acids.
Oxaluria arises in case of violation of metabolic processes. Part of oxalic acid is not consumed and not processed and turns into salt crystals. The processes occurring in the kidneys, called tubulopathy, because they are always associated with proximal and distal divisions of the seminiferous tubules.
In the kidney accumulate substances that are directed at the building of the stone.
- at the exogenous (outer);
- endogenous (internal).
The exogenous are:
- climatic conditions (hot climate, humidity);
- the composition of the water in the territory of residence (saturation with mineral salts);
- features power – a surplus of canned food, salt, vitamin D, deficiency of vitamins A and C.
- the violation of the outflow of urine;
- slowing of blood circulation in the kidney;
- chronic inflammatory processes.
Modern studies attach great importance to the role of the open in 1950, the goal of protein Tamm–Horsfall. It is a glycoprotein, located on the membrane of epithelial cells of the tubules. Proven to its ability to suppress crystallization of the oxalates. Study of the synthesis led to the conclusion that the decrease in the level of this protein increases the growth of crystals of oxalates and their bonding to the stone structure.
Special attention among the endogenous factors are given a hyperfunction of the parathyroid glands. It causes degenerative changes in the tubules, which increases the level of mucopolysaccharides in blood and urine. These substances are able to continue to form a core for stone structures. Some authors give the part to insoluble fibrin.
Predisposing factors for stone formation and their appearance in the urine are:
- the presence of at oxaluria in children congenital malformations of the ureters, kidneys, bladder, creating the possibility for stagnation of urine;
- obstruction of the urinary tract, narrowing of the ureter due to scar;
- neurogenic dyskinesia, causing spasserovannye ureter;
- trauma and foreign bodies.
The conditions for a change in the exchange processes and precipitation of salts in urine sediment are created in the following diseases and conditions:
- limited fluid intake or increased losses during sweating, use of diuretics, vomiting, diarrhea;
- a lack of magnesium and other antagonists in the body;
- inflammatory diseases of urogenital sphere;
- disturbed metabolism of oxalic acid;
- need for long-term bed rest in transferred trauma, stroke, heart disease;
- hereditary predisposition;
- the transferred operations on the stomach and intestines;
- frequent stressful situations;
- Crohn’s disease.
Discover how oxalates in the urine?
The body needs vitamins, electrolytes, antioxidants contained in the blood only in the form of dissolved salts. They need to include in different biochemical reactions. In the case of the pathology of the individual salt residues detected in the analysis of venous blood by biochemical tests. Oxaluria is considered to be a clinically significant symptom in the detection of insoluble compounds.
The test tube with urine pre-tsentrifugirujut, then transfer a drop of sediment on the glass. The laboratory is distinguished by the form of crystals in form, color. Single crystals in the field of vision called amorphous. It is established that they do not participate in the formation of stones in the urine, therefore, harmless. But considered in terms of further prevention of metabolic disorders. If you need to conduct a target analysis to study the type of salts, it is proposed to collect your urine for a day. This eliminates fluctuations in allocation in individual portions.
Symptoms of oxaluria determined by primary pathology contributing to metabolic changes.
From the urinary system are noted:
- dysuria with frequent urination, sharp pains, pain;
- blood in the urine, determined visually (gross hematuria);
- reddish color urine;
- pain over the pubes, in the groin, in the lumbar region on one side, worse after exercise, prolonged walking, shaking in transport (in children under 5 years pain syndrome is often missing);
- buildup of fatigue, weakness;
- periodically increasing the temperature.
The urinalysis revealed hematuria, a lot of white blood cells, possible pus, protein. The attack of renal colic occurs when the inability of outflow of urine in connection with obstruction of the urinary tract by stones, blood clot, or pus. Clinic develops suddenly, lasts for up to three days.
The patient in this case are:
- intense unilateral pain radiating to groin, abdomen, external genitals;
- urge to urinate;
- the lack of urination or urine with drops of blood;
- nausea and vomiting;
- the increase in temperature.
At the end of the attack, possibly the separation of sand or calculi.
Treatment of oxaluria not without target diet. Among the products and prepared dishes in the menu it is necessary to provide maximum excluding admission with food oxalic acid with the increase of calcium and magnesium.
- with a maximum content of more than 1 g/kg (cocoa, spinach, chocolate, sorrel);
- with a moderate amount of 0.3–1 g/kg (carrots, beans, beets, tomatoes);
- with a small amount of 0.05–0.3 g/kg (fresh cabbage, potatoes, apricots, currants);
- with a minimal amount – eggplant, cucumbers, peas, pumpkin, mushrooms.
When calculating a diet the doctor recommends completely eliminate:
- spicy seasonings, mustard;
- smoked and roasted meat dishes (to cook in a double boiler);
- the use of the liver, the kidneys;
- greens – spinach, celery, sorrel;
- any legumes (except beans);
- apricots, kiwifruit;
- canned tomatoes and other vegetables;
- carbonated water;
- chocolate and confectionery products based on it.
Restriction is put on foods that contain oxalic acid, but is required by the body for different functions:
- fatty meat;
- black tea;
- onions and green onions;
- kefir, yogurt, fermented baked milk, cottage cheese;
- rye-wheat bakery products;
- lean meat, poultry;
- eggs without yolks;
- alkaline mineral water without gas;
- fresh vegetables salad, fruits rich in vitamin C.
Methods of treatment
Oxaluria could indicate either a tendency to build of stones in the urine, and on the already existing stone. A more accurate picture shows ultrasound, x-ray examination. At larger sizes of stone to take him is impossible, so the only treatment is operative removal. What’s the best method to use (endoscopic or open intervention) will solve urologists.
Apply the method of lithotripsy. Attitude is twofold, as it is often the application is accompanied by massive damage to surrounding tissue, bleeding. In all cases, strict diet and at least 2 liters of water per day. In the presence of oxalate crystals in the urine, you need to reduce the heavy physical burden, but recommended light running and jumping.
Because of drugs are used:
- antispasmodics tablets and rectal candles (no-Spa, Spazmalgon, suppositories with extract of belladonna);
- antimicrobials with the data on inflammatory processes in urinary paths;
- Blemaren — is able to normalize the acid-base balance and excrete oxalate to the urine;
- the vitamins E, b6, A – normalizes metabolism at the cellular level;
- herbal remedies (Kanefron, Zistan, pasta Phytolysin) help take oxalic acid;
- drugs with magnesium (Asparkam, magnesia) and calcium (calcium gluconate) to counteract the loss of oxalates in the precipitate.
To the identification of oxalate in children parents should be treated with care. The result suggests that the propensity of a child to stone formation. Parents need to check the power and to accustom the child to the diet. It will help him in adult life to avoid serious complications.