The literal translation from Greek dystrophy means “eating disorders”. This term combines the changes of quantitative and qualitative nature in tissue structures and organs, which, in turn, lead to functional disorders. Degenerative abnormalities are common and local, and have the second name of nephrosis, but it is used in rare cases.
Among men, on the ear, most often granular degeneration of the kidneys, as it is associated with impaired protein metabolism, which is observed in many patients. And it most often involves in the pathological process of the heart and liver. A classification of such disorders is very extensive.
Conditionally they can be divided into the following categories:
- the changes associated with metabolic;
- congenital and acquired;
- mesenchymal, parenchymal, and mixed.
More detail about each species and their varieties.
Disorders degenerative nature in the kidneys have a clear location that is located within one body. But despite this, subsequently begins to suffer the urinary system, and then the whole body.
The kidneys perform the secretory function. They needed a man to save the body from decay products that are formed as a result of metabolism. Metabolic processes occur in the glomeruli of the kidneys, there is an interaction of blood and water solution, then accumulate all the unnecessary human body components. Through the kidneys are allocated and any toxic substances, therefore, the paired organ is always affected by a variety of poisonings, in almost equal measure as the liver.
Dystrophy associated with the violation of protein metabolism
Due to the fact that the kidneys take an active part in protein exchange, most often in patients diagnosed degeneration of protein nature. The process involved the cellular structure of the parenchyma, this is due to purulent formations, pathologies of connective tissue, malignant neoplasms and chronic inflammation.
Swelling of tissues is a major feature of the pathological process, in addition, when performing an overall analysis of urine revealed a large number of red blood cells, white blood cells and protein compounds. But this instrumental method is not enough informative, since this clinical picture is accompanies the majority of diseases of the urinary system.
Among dystrophy protein nature of the release:
- hyaline droplets.
Next, a brief description of each of them.
Granular dystrophy of the epithelium of the convoluted tubules of the kidney is expanded, upon actuation of histologic examination may be noted that the shape of these structures changes. The disease can affect the liver and heart, and it can be referred to as muddy or dull swelling. The main reason of development of pathological process is the presence of infection or acute intoxication.
With timely diagnosis and elimination of signs of intoxication, the kidney will quickly return to its previous state. But if the process of penetration of toxic substances deep into the body to slow down, then begin a stage of necrosis of a paired organ. The second organ, after the kidney, which is involved in the process of degeneration is considered to be the liver. It loses its color, becoming pale, or rather, is painted in a shade of the rot, the grain size of the liver may be may be completely absent.
As for the heart, it increases in size, and muscular tissues become flabby. Pockets of grain are absent, but there are basophilic and exophilia cell structure. The heart muscle becomes more sensitive to dyes of blue and purple flowers.
Hydropic degeneration of tubular epithelium has a second name, namely vacuolar degeneration. This is due to the fact that cell structures are formed vacuoles of large size, containing intracellular fluid.
The causes which lead to the development of this disease include: diabetes mellitus, amyloidosis, a sharp decline in the level of potassium in the bloodstream, the glomerulonephritis, poisoning by glycols. All of the above conditions lead to the acceleration of the filtration process, with consequent impairment of the enzymatic function. Unfortunately, the prognosis for recovery is not good, as it often leads to the development of renal necrosis.
Hyaline droplet degeneration
Hyaline droplet degeneration affects the areas of the epithelium that lines the convoluted tubules of the kidneys. A certain number of epithelial cells involved in the metabolic processes that take place between the renal matrix and blood.
Droplet degeneration of the epithelium develops because of the presence in the body of diseases such as glomerular nephritis, pyelonephritis, and intoxication of various kinds. Disorders of this nature are referred to as so, due to the fact that the cellular structures accumulate droplets of a substance similar to hyaline, they are the diagnostic feature.
Horny dystrophy is associated with excessive accumulation of specific substances – keratin. This protein coupling to occur in the skin cells. If the cell will be permanently affected to such damaging factors as fibrils cytoplasm, it will increase the amount of keratin.
Degenerative changes associated with metabolic disorders of lipids
Fatty degeneration of the kidneys has a second name – lipoid. A completely healthy person a small amount of fat cells in the kidney is the norm, they are in the field collecting ducts. But in patients with severe obesity, the deposition of lipids begin to accumulate in the proximal and distal tubules of the kidney. Body fat are divided into cholesterol, phospholipids and free lipids.
Paired organ begins to increase in size, and they begin to be covered by the layer of fat, yellow in color. The kidneys begin to be covered with lipids from tissue degeneration or hypoxia (pathology of the respiratory system, heart failure, anemia, alcohol abuse).
In addition, the causes of this disease include:
- intoxication by chloroform;
- phosphorus or arsenic;
- the presence of infectious process;
- food low in protein;
Glycogenic degeneration of the nature
This type of degenerative disorder observed in patients with diabetes. Characterized by excess amount of glycogen in the distal and the loops of the nephron. Glycogen is necessary for storage and subsequent accumulation of carbohydrate compounds in the human body.
Specific types of nephrosis
There are two types of degenerative disorders, to them often use the term nephrosis: fever and necrotic nephrosis.
Febrile nephrosis develops due to the rapid infectious diseases in the human body. To define this dystrophy needs to have a urine test, which will be found cells of renal epithelium. If you deal with the treatment of infectious diseases, nephrosis will go along with him, there is a need for specific drugs disappears.
The reason for the development of necrotic nephrosis is acute intoxication renal poisons. These include: acids, organic mercury, lead, chromium. In addition, necrosis of the renal tissue can cause infectious diseases and damage large areas of the skin (burn).
Dystrophic lesions of the kidneys may for a long enough time to prove himself, that is, pass without symptoms. The dawn of the clinical picture falls on the period when paired organ ceases to cope with their functional responsibilities. At this time, in the human body accumulate substances which in healthy people do not exist.
Each particular type of dystrophy, are certain products of metabolism, namely, it is possible to determine the kind of the pathological process. For example, if the urine of the patient are determined by the cell structure of the renal epithelium, it is possible to judge a feverish nephrosis, and the presence of amyloid protein are diagnosed with amyloid nephrosis.
For a more accurate diagnosis using ultrasonic methods. When such manipulation is possible to note an increase in renal size, and the structure it becomes flabby and loose. Any pathological process which occurs in the body, adversely affects the kidneys. In addition, special adverse effect observed in the employment of various drugs, which at the same time are vital.
Paired organ is very sensitive to various abnormalities, and therefore it is necessary to monitor its condition, and at the slightest faults and signs of disease, you must consult a doctor. It is worth remembering that most of the degenerative lesions of the kidney in the early stages is easily treatable and reversible process. If the nephrosis is not treated, it can lead to complete loss of kidney.