Allergic disease is various diseases of the gastrointestinal tract that occur as a reaction to allergens of food origin. To cause such a negative opinion of the body any food. These include, for example, cow’s milk, citrus, fish, chocolate.
According to ICD No. 10 allergic enteropathic coded as K52.9 – non-infectious origin gastroenteritis and colitis of unspecified. The first symptoms appear in the first month of a child’s life.
Types of allergic enteropathy
In a basis the inflammatory process is an inadequate reaction – hypersensitivity to a certain stimulus. When this occurs, the increased permeability of the intestinal wall. This facilitates the contact of the allergen with the submucosal layer. Developing polyvalent type of allergic reaction.
The basis of classification of enteropathy of this kind based on the type of body reaction to the allergen.
- The allergen passes through the intestinal wall and enters the bloodstream. The body wall is not damaged. Observed symptoms of intestinal disorders. A typical example is the allergic to cow milk proteins.
- The antigen interacts with the antibody, located in the submucosal layer of the intestinal wall. There is a change in the structure of red blood cells, there is the death of intestinal villi. A typical example is the reaction to wheat proteins – celiac disease.
- 3 type of response of the organism occurs violation of the integrity of vascular, intestinal wall immune complexes. There are signs of erosion, hemorrhage, foci of necrosis.
- At 4 type develops granulomatous inflammation of the bowel wall. A typical example Crohn’s disease.
Food allergies lead to a decrease in the production of enzymes involved in the digestion of food in the intestine and submucosal layer of intestine with the release of large amounts of liquid, vitamins, minerals, and electrolytes into the lumen of the colon. In addition, on the background of allergic reactions happening the changes of intestinal tissues, the appearance of foci of erosion, necrosis.
Symptoms of the disease
Signs of the pathological process vary depending on the age of the patient. They are divided into local and system-wide. Intestinal symptoms may be accompanied by rashes on the body.
Common symptoms in adults:
- epigastric pain – character spazmiruyutsya on the type of colic, is pronounced;
- nausea and vomiting begins a few minutes after eating and can last for several hours;
- violation of bowel movements – such as constipation and uncontrollable diarrhea;
- loss of appetite;
- headaches and weakness;
- as swelling of the mouth, face, organs of the respiratory system.
In babies first year of life, signs of intolerance to foods as follows:
- blood in the stool;
- diaper rash in the area of the anus and perianal folds with proper care. Appear after feeding;
- the slowdown;
The emergence of such symptoms requires treatment by the doctor and thorough examination. Since the signs of allergic reactions similar to symptoms of many pathological processes in the gastrointestinal tract.
In the diagnosis of food Allergy should be differentiated from diseases associated with inadequate production of digestive enzymes and pathology suction. Symptoms of these processes are similar, but in allergic enteropathy no qualitative signs of violations of electrolyte metabolism, absorption of nutrients.
If the assumption about the allergic nature of the disease the analysis of the dietary habits of the patient. Shown examination and consultation of the gastroenterologist, the immunologist, the allergist.
Instrumental methods of examination:
- Ultrasound of the gastrointestinal system for studying the structure of the stomach and intestines, the quality of their work. The research is conducted strictly on an empty stomach.
- Endoscopic examination of the gastrointestinal system – the visual inspection of the condition of the mucous membranes of the digestive system.
Laboratory studies in the diagnosis of allergic enteropathy:
- General analysis of blood – eosinophilia is detected, that is, elevated levels of eosinophils, which indicates the allergic nature of the disease;
- coprogram – analysis allows to determine the presence of erythrocytes, eosinophils, neutrophils in the stool;
- the examination of bioptate of mucous structures of the stomach, of the intestines for signs of bleeding, inflammation, atrophy of the villi;
- Allergy tests with determination of total IgE, specific IgE and IgG;
- run scratch tests for Allergy tests to determine possible allergen.
Treatment of allergic enteropathy
Therapeutic interventions should begin with the possible exception of the allergen from food. The patient shows a gentle hypoallergenic diet.
If the baby is breastfed, the mother’s diet should remove all the potentially dangerous products. If this does not produce the expected result, the child is transferred to Allergy-free adapted formulas. Kids on artificial feeding system administered a mixture based on milk goats.
Feeding children with a diagnosis of allergic enteropathy is administered not earlier than 6 months strictly according to doctor’s recommendation. Start with cereals – rice, buckwheat, corn and meat sauce – beef, rabbit, Turkey. Cheese, fish, cow’s milk and products based on it are under a complete ban to 3 years. Older children keep to the diet for at least six months after the disease.
Drug therapy in allergic enteropathy is the use of antihistamines, enterosorbents in acute period, the enzymatic means of symptomatic therapy. In addition, shows preparations with lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria.
When the relief of acute process, prolonged use is recommended sparing diet, refusal of food-allergens.
Becic, Julia, doctor, medical commentator