The vertebral artery (PA) through the cross holes of the upper six cervical vertebral segments, penetrate into the cranial cavity through the foramen Magnum, and then in the dural sheath and being located in the subarachnoid space. Initially, they move around the side of the medulla oblongata, then to the front part and connected to the basilar arterial vessel near the lower bridge.
Moving away from her different caliber arterial branches. The abnormal formation of these branches either of the basilar artery compensatory way is actively developing the system of the carotid arteriosus.
Anterior spinal artery branches off from the inner side of each of the PA 2 thin beams and are supplied by the median-paramedian the area of the medulla oblongata. Forms only by hand plexus in the pyramidal area and the exit point narokoroko 12 of the nerve trunk. Back spinal arteriosus depart from vertebrate in the cranial cavity immediately after penetration of the Dura.
Angiographic method identified the existence of anastomosing structures connecting the PA with the occipital and meimsheim branches of these two arteriosum.
Violation of gameovermenu in PA often develops in elderly people in history who have atherosclerosis and GB.
Insufficiency of blood coming through the PA manifests itself in the temporal disorder of the blood supply (called transient ischemic attacks) and thrombosis (stenosis, occlusion), which leads to resistant stem dysfunction.
The thrombotic clot obliteration of the main artery is detected in a minority of patients. The symptomatic manifestations of the insolvency of the vertebral and basilar arteries, which develop at the time of rotation of the head, presented with dizziness, ataxic condition, nystagmus.
Occlusion of the basilar artery occurs as a result of sudden rotation of the head in the period of surgical intervention on the spinal column. Some scientists (Clark and others) believe that this turn leads to the transformation of the PA, reduce hematoma in the apparatus main artery and thrombotic overlap as a result of stasis.
Clogging of the PAS in some embodiments, is combined with the disorder gameovermenu in the posterior-inferior cerebellar arterial vessel. Attacks of acute obliteration of the PA is characterized by pronounced pain in occipital area, dizziness, nausea, combined with vomiting, profuse hyperhidrosis and vasomotor symptoms, provoked by turning the head to the side.
Pathology formed in vnutribronhialno part, parallel to that in the extracranial part mainly marked stenosis or partial occlusion or compression of the bone growths. When there are defects in development of vertebral arterial blood vessels (dilatation, bending), the pathogenetic mechanism underlying the role of reflex influences transformed with atheromatous arterial wall or discirkulatornaya in the decrease of BP because of reduced hematoma. Temporary vascular insufficiency in the vertebral system presented dizziness, nausea, darkening of the eyes, in some embodiments, the double vision in combination with vomiting and nystagmus.
Disease primarily characterized by the slow formation of a pathology with multiple impairment, and periods of regression of discomfort, but not necessarily the progress of postprocess.
Clinic and the location of the foci correspond to the site of injury, nature of perprocess and level obturirovaniâ PA:
- For thrombosis of the PA at the connection level in the basilar artery characteristic of sudden manifestation. Often marked by harbingers in the form of a stagger when walking, dizziness, cardiac boleznennostew, General weakness, nausea. Duration of pathology from the beginning until the formation of a coma within several hours. Coma ends in death in half an hour-several hours.
In some cases, there is a forced position of the head. In the case of bilateral thrombosis, mainly manifested damage of the cerebellum, is formed and chronic insufficiency of cerebral gameovermenu.
Sometimes marked trophic disorders in the mucous.
- Clinic occlusion near bazalnogo Boulevard circle often reminds thrombotic lesions of the lower-posterior cerebellar artery. Patients acutely, often with the precursors, is formed on the side damage hemianesthesia, ataxia, Horner’s syndrome, paretic phenomena in the soft palate and vocal cord, nystagmus. After some time formed trophic, vasomotor and secretory disorders. Later patients symptoms of chronic Cerebro-failure only by hand, diffuse damage to the barrel, forced position of the head, dizziness, vomiting when you change the position of the head.
- Occlusion at the junction with the basilar artery is formed by a symptom complex of proximal damage zone of the cerebral trunk. Happen gazomotornoe disorders, peripheral paresis of the facial nerve bundle, damage to the trigeminal nerve bundle. Is characterized by a dynamic progression and death because of disorders of respiratory function and cardiac activity. Marked drop in blood pressure, often due to fever, profuse hyperhidrosis.