Gastro occurs as a result of external (exogenous) and internal (endogenous) factors. That is why he is considered as polietiologic (with several causes at the same time). Chronic gastroduodenitis develops as a result of late diagnosis. At the initial stages of the pathological process is blurred, poorly-defined symptoms. During this period, adult patients rarely go to the doctor, hoping that the situation will normalize itself. The lack of treatment contributes to the chronic course of the disease.
1. genetic predisposition;
2. intestinal infection;
3. prolonged medication (especially antibiotic therapy);
4. diseases of the liver, pancreas and gall bladder;
6. violation of diet and nutrition;
8. frequent consumption of alcoholic beverages;
9. infectious diseases of the throat (sore throat) and oral cavity (caries);
10. the bacterium Helicobacter pylori;
11. increased acidity of gastric juice.
Inflammation of the mucous membranes of the lower section of the stomach (pyloric part) and the duodenum is called gastroduodenitis. Symptoms and causes of this disease in adults and children are very diverse. There are acute or chronic gastroduodenitis. The treatment of this disease includes drug therapy and a special diet.
Chronic atrophic duodenitis characteristic of the adults (especially the elderly). It is caused by a prolonged inflammation of the stomach (gastritis) on the background of age-related changes. Younger children suffer gastro-intestinal diseases in the presence of pathologies of pregnancy and complications during birth, artificial feeding, allergic processes, disorders diet.
During this period, a baby’s digestive system is especially vulnerable because it had not completed its formation. The body’s defenses are still fragile. Violation of the diet (consumption is not characteristic of age-products), frequent infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract and treatment with antibiotics increase the risk of development of inflammatory processes in the stomach and intestines of the child.
1. There are acute and chronic gastroduodenitis. Depending on the shape of the course of the disease is different symptoms. For chronic inflammation characteristic of the stage of exacerbation and remission. The intensification of the pathological process depends on the time of year and General state of the organism. Relapses often occur in autumn and spring. This is due to the weakening of the immune system and the transition to a different diet. Sometimes the worsening provoke nervous disorders and infectious diseases.
2. By etiological signs of gastro klassificeret on the primary (independent) and secondary (collateral). Inflammation can occur on the background of other pathologies of the digestive system: liver, gallbladder, colon (in this case, the symptoms are usually vague). Primary gastroduodenitis most often affects children and teenagers. It develops as a result of gross malnutrition or poisoning.
3. According to the degree of structural (morphological) changes distinguish the following forms of the disease:
Chronic gastroduodenitis may occur with elevated, reduced or normal acidity of gastric juice.
4. With the discovery of Helicobacter pylori started to allocate and infectious type of disease. The bacterium resides in the gastric mucosa and duodenal ulcers and destroys their protective coating. The result is hydrochloric acid corrodes the inner walls of the bodies. To treat this type of disease is necessary with antibiotics.
Their severity depends on the form of the disease (acute or chronic), degree of mucosal lesions and metabolic abnormalities. Gastro has features that are similar to other gastrointestinal pathologies, and often accompanies them. In this case, we have to treat several diseases. Sometimes the inflammation appears suddenly, the sharp pain in the upper abdomen. Also, there is a feeling of satiation and fullness of the stomach, although the amount of food eaten slightly.
A description of the main symptoms of gastro:
- sharp or aching pain in the upper abdomen;
- nausea, sometimes vomiting with the presence of bile;
- increased salivation;
- problems with bowel movement (constipation or diarrhea);
- bad taste in the mouth;
- white or yellowish coating on the tongue;
- the feeling of heaviness and fullness in the stomach;
- belching with a bitter taste;
- lack of appetite;
- excessive thinness;
- pallor of the skin;
- periodic headaches and dizziness;
Chronic gastroduodenitis in children is often accompanied by autonomic disturbances and nervous disorders. A sick child sleeps badly, complains of weakness, sweats profusely, refuses to eat. In some cases, a symptom of pathology is the increased drowsiness after a meal, muscle tremors and increased peristalsis.
Depending on the localization, pathology, pain occurs in the right upper quadrant or in the umbilicus. Sometimes there is flatulence, there is a yellowness of the skin and sclera. When chronic pain is less pronounced and there are not more than 10 days. Although the period of exacerbation may last up to 2 months.
Diagnosis and therapy
The signs of inflammation of the digestive system requires immediate treatment to the doctor. Otherwise, the disease goes into a chronic form and to cure it will be much harder. Diagnose disease on the basis of complaints, external examination of the patient, palpation of the epigastric (upper stomach) and umbilical region. To further carry out:
1. The endoscopic examination. The stomach is administered, a thin probe equipped with a video camera. With it, examine the body and detect the presence and localization of pathological processes.
2. Histological examination. Is performed for the analysis of the characteristics of inflammatory processes and structural changes. There is a collection of cells of the gastric and intestinal wall in the affected area. Appointed mainly in chronic disease ulcerative and atrophic forms.
3. Fluoroscopy. Is held with the stomach filling a contrast agent. Allows you to obtain a detailed picture of the processes occurring therein.
4. Identification of bacterial infection (Helicobacter pylori). Is carried out using a breath test, examination, histology.
5. Ultrasound. Shows the state of the inner surface of the stomach and the degree of development of pathology. Often used to monitor recurrence of the disease.
6. Determination of acidity of gastric juice.
7. Antroduodenal manometry. Explores the motility of the stomach.
Chronic gastroduodenitis has less severe symptoms and require longer medical therapy than acute. To cure this form of the disease is not fully successful, but you can significantly prolong the period of remission (sometimes for years).
If the survey had revealed H. pylori infection, antibiotics are prescribed. They must have certain characteristics:
- resistance to an acid environment;
- the ability to penetrate the mucous membranes;
- effectiveness against a certain type of bacteria (Helicobacter pylori);
- rapid removal from the body;
- the lack of negative effects on the internal organs.
These properties are: Amoxiclav, Azithromycin, Amoxicillin, Tetracycline. For the treatment of chronic gastroduodenitis used medication that blocks the production of hydrochloric acid (Ranitidine, Cimetidine, Omeprazole, Omez). The aggressiveness of gastric juice allows you to quickly remove the inflammation.
At elevated and normal acidity use antacids (aluminium phosphate gel, Almagel, Gastal, Maalox, Denol). They have shielding action and improve the protective function of the mucosa. In the treatment of chronic gastroduodenitis with low acidity use of substitution drugs: the gastric juice, atsidin-pepsin, Betazed.
Gastroduodenitis in the period of exacerbation is often associated with pain. It cropped antispasmodics (no-Spa, Papaverine, Duspatalin, Trimedat, Odeston). Infants prescribed Plantex. Minor pain will help to relieve phytomedicine – Iberogast. For the treatment of adults and children older than 14 years used drugs bismuth. A popular representative of this group of medicines is the De-Nol. It has antimicrobial and astringent action and forms a protective film on the inner surface of the stomach.
Chronic gastroduodenitis in the acute stage requires bed rest within a week and compliance with sparing diet. To cure inflammation of the digestive system is impossible if not to observe certain rules of supply. It is necessary to exclude from the diet: smoked, salted, spicy, fried foods and animal fats. Cold, hot, coarse food and alcoholic drinks are also not recommended.
During treatment are allowed to eat:
- light soups vegetable, fish and meat broths;
- raw eggs and omelettes;
- steam meatballs and burgers;
- razmernye cereals;
- baked apples;
- puree boiled vegetables;
- dairy products (low-fat);
- candy, marshmallows, jelly;
- herbal teas (chamomile, mint), weak tea with milk.
The number of meals increased to 5 – 6 times a day. Portions should be small volume. Strictly adhere to the diet requires at least 10 days.
Treatment of gastroduodenitis in children and adults should be monitored by a gastroenterologist. This is a serious disease that can have serious consequences in the form of ulcers or cancer of the stomach and duodenum. Therefore, the appearance of the first symptoms of inflammation should consult a doctor. In periods of remission the recommended physiotherapy. To eliminate mild forms of inflammation can be an outpatient procedure. In the case of severe acute illness, particularly a child, hospitalization is required. Predictions of a full recovery in adults and children is favorable in the case of timely diagnosis and strict compliance with all recommendations of the doctor.