Large knee joints are often subjected to high overloads. The joints themselves have a rather complex anatomical structure, it provides the flexion/extension of the legs, its movement in multiple planes. Moreover, the joint “protects” itself from excessive compressive loads and incorrect flexion and extension.
But in some cases these entities may occur inflammation. The main manifestation of the disorder is pain – arthralgia. Pain can be quite intense. This is due to the pronounced innervation of articular structures.
The mechanism of occurrence of pain with arthralgia of the knee joint
Pain in the knees can occur as a result of direct irritation of pain receptors. But most often arthralgia – evidence of an inflammatory process in the knee joint or surrounding tissues. Inflammation is a natural reaction of tissue to any diseases and traumatic injuries. Its main symptoms – fever, swelling, pain, redness, impaired function. The process begins with the particular signals supplied by the cells in the affected area. The role of these signals perform the mediators of inflammation.
Catching them, the body immediately starts the exudation, during which the veins and capillaries near the affected area begins the exudation of fluid rich in protein and white blood cells designed to destroy disease-causing agent. So in the surrounding tissues accumulates infiltration.
Increasing swelling compresses blood vessels, nerves, tissues, exacerbating the painful process and increases the pain. The formation of tumor-like formations – cysts, aneurysms (use increases blood vessels with thin walls, enlarged lymph nodes) increase the arthralgia.
In the practice of psychogenic pain in the joints of the knees, the cause of which lies in the peculiarities of the nervous system of the patient.
Most often in the inflammatory process involved:
- cartilage and its formation;
- blood vessels – arteries, veins;
- the nerve trunks and endings;
- tissue of the lymphatic system – vessels and nodes;
- muscle-tendon complex.
- synovial and fibrous tissue capsules;
- subcutaneous fat;
- bone formations.
Diagnosis of the causes and diseases that cause knee pain (arthralgia)
The definition of causes of pain requires an experienced specialist – orthopedist-traumatologist or a rheumatologist. Laboratory and instrumental diagnostics are preceded by the collection of complaints and medical examination.
Depending on the suspected cause are:
- General analysis of blood (the doctor is interested in the number of leukocytes and ESR to confirm the inflammatory process eosinophils in allergic diseases);
- biochemical analysis of blood. Deviations from the values of thymol samples, the appearance of C-reactive protein, rheumatoid factor, ASL-O, changes in liver and kidney samples allows the technician to confirm the presence of certain diseases, rheumatism, oncological processes, diseases of the kidneys, the liver;
- radiography of the knee joint. This method can be complemented by dynamic fluoroscopy, CT, MRI;
- Ultrasound of the knee joint;
- diagnostic puncture of the synovial fluid. Allows you to find the abnormal cells;
- serological blood tests. For detection of allergic and immune diseases;
- specific investigations. They are not directly associated with arthralgia, but is able to detect the possible cause. For example: to determine the level of hormones in the blood, smears from mucosa of the genital organs, etc.
Please note: if there is no obvious possible causes of pain in the knee joints, the doctor may suspect the development of psychogenic rheumatism.
Specific manifestations arthralgia of the knee joint at different diseases
Pain have some distinctive features in various pathologies.
Deforming arthrosis, which is accompanied by destruction of cartilage, gives a constant, growing at a load of pain. It is characterized by frequent nocturnal exacerbation, which is accompanied by swelling and redness of the joint.
Inflammation of the popliteal artery or vein is accompanied by the frequency of pain, with the prevalence of piercing attacks of its variants and the presence of signs of defeat of vessels, thrombosis.
Inflammation of the popliteal lymph education is the strengthening of pain at pressure on him, while wearing constricting clothing.
Traumatic knee pain are a variety of color – from drawing, to Express. The load may amplify the pain in the joint, and Vice versa, mute them.
Erysipelas or dermatitis on the knee area gives a pronounced swelling, redness and ghouse-bursting pain. Sometimes the pain is so severe that the patient cannot move the limb with the affected joint.
Inflammation of the synovial bags bursitis along with the pain severely limits function in the knee joint.
The infectious nature of inflammation of the joints – arthritis, accompanied by severe intoxication of the whole organism.
How to remove the arthralgia of the knee joint
Causes of pain in the knee may require urgent care or to wear a non-urgent nature.
In the first case requires immediate and often hospitalization.
Condition requiring emergency care:
- intra-articular fractures, dislocations, subluxations and sprains of the entities associated with the knee joint;
- bleeding in the joint;
- suppurative processes in the knee joint with high temperature, severe intoxication and intense throbbing pain;
- harsh, unreasonable “seizure” movements in the joint.
What to do in this case:
- immediately call the doctor (ambulance);
- to ensure the leg position, which reduces pain;
- to the knee put a cold bandage (ice, water, low temperature, hypothermic packages);
- find pill pain medication (to learn about possible allergies!).
Important: absolutely contraindicated massage and the imposition of bandage with elastic fibers.
Treatment of arthralgia of the knee joint for diseases that do not require emergency assistance:
- with a knee injury. The damage required the temporary immobilization of the joint. Most often for the treatment of arthralgia is applied a plaster bandage, hardware methods of fixation, skeletal traction. To reduce pain prescribe painkillers (tablets and injection, Diclofenac, Ibuprofen), ointment, injections of hormones, when expressed pain and swelling inflammation;
- allergic processes. In these cases, the arthralgia persists antihistamine drugs of the latest generation (loratadine), hormonal therapy (Dexamethasone). The benefit of having the use of Activated charcoal, drugs that can reduce the activity of cells involved in allergic processes – Nedocromil;
- rheumatic diseases. Combination of corticosteroids (Prednisone) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (Indomethacin, Ibuprofen) are gradually removed from the manifestations of arthralgia of the knee joint;
- pain in infectious pathologies. In this case, the treatment of pain, antipyretic, antihistamine and hormonal therapy complement antibiotics;
- chemotherapy, radiotherapy. They are prescribed for the treatment of arthralgia of the knee joint in diseases of tumor nature.
In all variants of treatment the patient needs bed rest.
Surgical intervention for arthralgia is required, if necessary:
- dissection of the lesion with purulent content;
- ligament reconstruction-tendon structures;
- removal novoobrazovaniya processes, cysts;
- vascular surgeries (resection of varicose changed veins, sclerotherapy, removal of aneurysms of the arteries, stent implantation);
Treatment of neurogenic arthralgia of the knee joint requires an individual plan with the use of different groups of medicines and the obligatory consultation of the neurologist or psychiatrist.
Pregnancy and arthralgia of the knee joint
In women awaiting the birth of a child with a chronic illness, quite often there are problems with the knee joints, especially in the last trimester of pregnancy. Often on the background of overweight. The use of drugs in this case requires the consultation of several specialists, to avoid treatment that could harm the developing baby.
Knee pain in young children
Specifics of treatment of arthralgia in children is anatomical peculiarities of the child’s musculoskeletal system knee joint and the side effects of some medications. In children, pain often arise from orthopedic problems. Arthralgia should only be treated by the pediatrician (physician, surgeon, other specialists).
Folk medicine in the treatment of arthralgia of the knee joint
Rich centuries-old experience of folk medicine has left a large number of recipes to ease patients pain in the knee joints.
Lotions with different herbs, infusions, tinctures, decoctions, compresses, rubbing and ointments with proper appointment able to reduce pain.
Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect have:
- ingredients chestnut;
- calendula flowers, chamomile, lilac;
- potato tubers;
- Bay tree leaves, raspberry;
- horseradish root;
- olive oil;
- drugs of honey;
- blue clay.
Important: the treatment methods of folk medicine in any case can not replace official medical treatment and should only be used after doctor’s recommendations.
Diet for pain in the knees
The diet should be followed based on the rules of treatment of the main disease.
General features of diet therapy is to limit:
- roasted, sour, smoked;
- the use of spices and salts;
- excessive hot and cold food;
- in the consumption of fatty meat and oil-dairy products.
- soups, cereals, jellies, fruit compotes;
- lean meats – beef (boiled or steamed);
- low-fat varieties of river and sea fish;
- local fruits and vegetables, from the exotic should be avoided.
Forecast for arthralgia of the knee joint
In most cases, to reduce or completely remove pain possible therapeutic and physiotherapeutic methods. The predictive results depend on treatment of the underlying disease. In some cases it is possible to achieve complete healing, sometimes significantly relieve pain and minimize recurrence of the disease. In severe cases, the condition of the patients is facilitated by palliative measures (adequate analgesia).