Among infections of the throat are those that over time can lead to irreversible consequences. Streptococcal pharyngitis, despite the fact that its symptoms are not significant, a real hidden threat to the organism as the adult and child.
Over time the body accumulates antistreptococcal antigen that destroys the immune system and causes of rheumatoid changes in the connective tissue of the large joints and heart valves. Formed acquired rheumatoid heart disease, rheumatoid arthritis.
In advanced cases there may be renal amyloidosis, acute renal failure, etc. Therefore, it is important to know what symptoms gives streptococcal pharyngitis and what methods of treatment with antibiotics. All this questions are answered in the article.
Infection occurs through direct contact with the bacteria.
There are the following ways of transmission of Streptococcus in the environment:
- airborne route of infection are leading in the frequency of diagnosis and is more than 80% of cases – refers to the inhalation of air contained therein with microorganisms;
- alimentary or food transfer path, the bacterium gets into the gastrointestinal tract and mucous membranes of the throat with the consumption of contaminated food;
- contact transmission occurs by contact of the epidermis with contaminated surfaces, including toys, household items;
- and intrauterine transmission of infection from mother to the baby while passing the birth canal;
- medical – failure to comply with the rules of antimicrobial treatment during medical procedures.
The source of infection is always a person who may be ill with this infection, or be a chronic latent carrier. In almost half of cases in the family there is a carrier of Streptococcus. It is therefore important follow-up to identify all potential sources of infection and preventive treatment of all family members. Especially carefully it is necessary to approach the detection of Streptococcus in pregnant women. When infected by baby, the probability of death of the newborn very high. In the period of preparation for childbirth will require antibiotic therapy.
The mechanism of disease development involves several stages:
- prodrome during which occurs the introduction of the Streptococcus in the mucous membranes;
- the development of pathogenic organisms after the suppression of her primary immune response (people in this time can feel a slight malaise, headache, muscle weakness, aching in the large joints, dizziness);
- the manifestation of clinical symptoms during the period of active reproduction of Streptococcus on the mucous membranes of the throat;
- selection of bacteria in the environment and contamination of the contact persons;
- development of the immune system specific streptococcal antibodies, is able to partially dissolve the shell bacteria;
- the increasing titer of antistreptolysin;
- reducing the severity of the immune response and the development of chronic latent carrier state – no symptoms but the immune system is destroyed and the person becomes dangerous to those around him.
When antibacterial treatment, the disease successfully responding to therapy and leaves no negative consequences for human health. The sooner treatment begins, the better the chances of a successful recovery.
Clinical diagnosis and symptoms of streptococcal pharyngitis
Typical symptoms of streptococcal pharyngitis are very easily confused with the common cold. In the early days of man to bother General malaise and fever up to 37,5 – 38 degrees Celsius.
However, since the third day formed specific characteristics:
- the temperature rises to 38 – 39 degrees Celsius and is difficult to reduce (in some cases helps lytic mixture);
- there is a strong increasing pain in the throat sharp;
- may develop convulsions;
- headaches, dizziness, weakness, nausea;
- severe paroxysmal dry cough without sputum;
- feeling presence of a lump or foreign object in the throat;
- a mild form of rhinitis.
When viewed from the throat sustained visible redness and swelling of the mucous membranes of the throat. Determined attacks yellow. They are easily removed with a spatula, but a few hours later appear again. Quickly develop secondary tonsillitis.
Clinical diagnosis is based on the data of bacterial seeding smear from pharynx on pathogens and definition of its sensitivity to antibacterial and antimicrobial effects. In addition, the need for a detailed General analysis of blood and urine analysis. These analyses show the extent of the inflammatory response and as mocheotdelenia system. After 7 days requires repeated General blood test, blood test for antistreptolysin (Aslo) and ECG. These surveys are also necessary to avoid the risk of rheumatism and carriage of the pathogen. Options Aslo come back to normal a week later after finishing the antibiotic therapy.
The standard treatment of streptococcal pharyngitis
The standard for the modern treatment of streptococcal pharyngitis include the mandatory use of antibiotics and antimicrobials. The best approach is combination therapy, since streptococcal microflora in recent years shows a high degree of resistance to donoshennym applications of antibiotics. Most often for the treatment of streptococcal pharyngitis is assigned to “Augmentin” or “Amoxiclav” adult 1000 mg 2 times a day, children depending on the age of 250 – 500 mg 2 times a day for 7 days. It is also possible to use a broad-spectrum antibioticsto which the laboratory will be determined by the high sensitivity of the identified strain of Streptococcus.
Along with antibiotics it is desirable to use a sulfanilamide antimicrobial agent. This can be “Soap” in powder form for local use. They need to powder the affected mucous membranes of the throat every 3 hours in the first 5 days of illness. It can replace the drug “Biseptol-480” -adult to apply 2 tablets 2 times a day for 5 days. Children are shown the designation “Co-trimoxazole-240” 2 tablets 2 times a day.
Obligatorily acetylsalicylic acid as an anti-inflammatory agent and to prevent the development of rheumatic fever. Use 1 tablet 3 times a day regardless of the temperature of the body within 7 – 10 days. Also in the period of antibacterial treatment, it is necessary to use antihistamines (“Suprastin”, “Tavegil”, “Ketotifen”, “Diazolin” about 1 tablet 2 times a day for 5 days). This is necessary to eliminate swelling and prevent the sensitization of an organism in response to the use of antibiotics. To protect the intestinal microflora can use the “Linex”, “Bifiform”, “hilak-Forte”, “Acipol” and other drugs.
In addition, you must:
- compliance with bed rest in the first five days of the disease;
- gargling solution furatsilina, chlorhexidine go every hour;
- treatment of the mucous membranes of the throat with Lugol’s solution every 4 hours;
- drink plenty of liquids, liquid mashed foods at room temperature;
- the use of vitamins, “Askorutin”, “calcium Gluconate” to strengthen capillary walls.
The rest treatment is symptomatic. Apply antitussives, vasoconstrictor nose drops, etc. On the list of temporary disability for 10 days or until normalization of laboratory parameters. Children are exempt from physical education after discharge with help for 2 weeks.