Today we re-conceptualize the significance of psychology for the fate of society and its citizens. Several generations of Soviet people were formed in an atmosphere of worship before the inexorable objective laws of social development. Capitalism in accordance with these laws inevitably gives way to socialism, developed socialism gradually turns into a communism – a society of universal abundance, and happiness.
The leading force of Soviet society, the Communist party has knowledge, necessary for the implementation of the triumphant ascent to the heights of progress; the better each member of the society will carry out its instructions, the sooner we reach these heights. It is clear that these are free from any difficulties and doubt, the scheme of social life, did not leave much space for self-reflection on the role of the individual and his internal mental life.
Economic and social, spiritual and political crisis, which began to be felt in the years of stagnation, more decomposed this simple and clear system of social representations. The restructuring of the eighties, up to the limit of exposing and exacerbating the crisis that led to the disintegration of the state and society in their historical geopolitical borders, have left from it a stone. Highly chaotic, unpredictable and uncontrollable nature of economic and political life of most of the republics of the former Soviet Union are extremely difficult to reconcile with the idea of allegedly directing and governing its “objective laws”.
In the “time of troubles”, which is going through Russia and neighboring countries in the early 90-ies, the public mind naturally proceeds from this presentation. Including in its new version, which the entire Soviet history is presented as a derivative of a departure from the objectively necessary from the normal and natural path of development (which is followed by the countries of the West), and a return to the normal way – as a guarantee of overcoming the crisis.
Apparently, this reasoning is largely justified, but it does not explain why attempts to get back on a normal and natural way of the market economy and political pluralism are, in practice, increasing chaos and collapse. And this practice encourages the public consciousness to seek understanding of what is happening not so much in certain objective regularities, as in subjective factors – the actions (or inaction) of particular individuals and groups.