If it is bad to brush your teeth, and frequently to indulge yourself with sweets will certainly develop tooth decay – this information we all learned from childhood. But the periodontal disease why it is not accepted to speak aloud. Although the world Health Organization States: periodontitis is present in 80% of the population of the globe.
And if you are over 30, you can almost with 100 percent probability to assert that the disease has already begun its destructive effect, but just not yet declared itself.
What is periodontal disease?
Enemy, and especially this terrible, you need to know in person.
Medical encyclopedia reported: “Periodontitis is a disease of periodontal tissue-inflammatory nature.”
Simple layman, this definition is likely to seem incomprehensible. Therefore, to understand how insidious this disease of the teeth, it is worth remembering and what is periodontium and its structure.
The periodontium is the periodontal tissue, where their main task: to hold the tooth in the hole.
The periodontium includes:
- Gingiva – the soft tissue that surround part of the root of the tooth and protect it from external influences.
- Bony support of the tooth or alveolar process. It consists of bony plates, and is permeated with blood vessels and nerves.
- The periodontium – connective tissue filling the space between the bone bed and the tooth.
- The cement – tissue that covers the tooth root.
So periodontitis is a pathological process that affects all, without exception, the structure of the periodontium. Starting as inflammation of the gums, with time it covers connective tissue and alveolar bone. It is easy to guess that at a late stage of the disease leads to loosening and loss of teeth. And the destruction of ligaments and bone bed makes it impossible and the process of prosthetics.
Stages of periodontitis
In its development the disease sequentially passes through 2 stages:
- Initial. Periodically, the patient begins to notice on the toothbrush blood, sometimes feel itching and numbness in the gums. At this stage, the dentist diagnoses gingivitis – inflammation of the soft tissues.
- Developed. The gums become inflamed, bleed, increasingly, their path begins to change. Patient is uncomfortable to drink cold drinks and food, the overall body temperature rises to subfebrile. Over time, the situation only worsens: the teeth become loose, drift, and later fall out.
When to seek help from a dentist, it is possible to achieve stabilization or remissionof periodontitis. This is not a complete cure, but only the subsidence of the inflammatory process.
New aggravation and possibly a few months, and maybe about the problem the patient will remember for years to come. It all depends on the timely treatment to the doctor and how will faithfully executed his orders.
The difference between periodontitis from periodontal disease
Very often patients confuse with periodontal disease are more rare, but no less insidious disease – periodontal disease. And in fact, in the case we are talking about pathologies of the periodontium – the tissues that hold the tooth in the bone.
But between these two diagnoses there is a huge difference.
- periodontitis – a disease of an inflammatory nature, massively widespread among the population. Periodontal disease can develop quickly and aggressively, making it possible to identify in the early stages;
- periodontitis – is an inflammatory process is systemic periodontal disease, which leads to atrophy of the bone bed of the tooth. Found disease rare: not more than 2% of the population. For periodontal disease characterized by slow, asymptomatic.
If the affected gums in the area of 1-2 teeth, is present and bleeding is clearly visible soft tissue swelling, it is safe to talk about periodontitis. Periodontal disease always affects the entire oral cavity and is detected in most cases very late, when bone tissue is already heavily atrophied.
The symptoms of periodontitis
Periodontal disease begins almost imperceptible to the patient. Itching in the gums, minor discomfort during chewing, and bad breath, few people considers a good reason for going to the dentist.
Thinking about the need for treatment, patients start too late: when the gums begin to bleed, to react badly to the cleaning of the teeth to become inflamed and swell. If at this stage not to take any action, very soon will start to loose teeth. Launched periodontitis is impossible to ignore. It is characterized by: increased body temperature, inability chewing because of tenderness of the gums, displacement and loss of teeth.
The causes of periodontitis
Dentists call the main culprit for the occurrence of periodontal disease is bacterial plaque. If you do not remove it from the surface of the teeth in time, over time it hardens and turns into Tartar. He, in turn, contributes to the formation of gaps between the gum and the tooth, which is called periodontal or periodontal pocket. As a result, to maintain hygiene of the mouth is becoming increasingly difficult: food debris clogged in the crack, and provoke an inflammatory process.
The rapid formation of Tartar is not necessarily a sign of inadequate hygiene. The cause of the pathological process can be reduced secretion of saliva, which naturally cleanses the mouth. This problem often occurs on the background of long-term administration of antidepressants and anti-inflammatory drugs.
The disease can develop due to a lack of vitamins and minerals. So, the lack of calcium will definitely affect the entire skeletal system of the body, and deficiency of vitamin C reduces the strength of connective tissue. In adults, periodontitis can become a reward for the habit of chewing on one side and a dislike for solid food: raw vegetables and fruits – ideally, the load on the teeth must be uniform and gums need daily exercise.
The treatment of periodontitis in dentistry
Periodontitis is an insidious disease: it is never cured spontaneously. And is only a little to start the process, it will be possible to speak not about a complete cure, but only in remission. Therefore, when the first symptoms of gingivitis, you should find a few hours in your busy schedule, and to contact an experienced dentist.
Modern medicine is not helpless in the face of illness. Doctors – a lot of conservative, hardware and surgical methods of treatment of periodontal disease. Which one will be most effective in each particular case can be determined only specialist.
The main criterion of necessity of surgical intervention is increasing the depth of the periodontal pocket and a clear progression of inflammation despite medical therapy.
Methods of surgical treatment of periodontitis, there are several. They are all aimed at stopping the pathological process, eliminate periodontal channels, and to prevent loss of teeth by the patient.
Surgical curettage or flap surgery. Allows to clean the deep periodontal pockets, and is performed under local anesthesia. To get to the affected areas doctor incision and detaches the gums. And then manual tools or with the help of ultrasonic apparatus performs a thorough cleaning. After the cavity is filled with pockets of osteogenic drugs, and on the gums is superimposed seam.
Gingivectomy. This is an operation to remove excess edges of the gums with excessive growth. Its goal is to eliminate periodontal pockets, to prevent the spread of the process with the soft tissues in the ligaments and bony support of the tooth. Is made either under local or under General anesthesia.
Splinting. Designed for mounting on the inner surface of teeth with a removable or non-removable bus, to lock the teeth into the correct position, and prevent movement. This procedure helps to keep the teeth even in advanced form of periodontitis and strong reel.
If the cause of periodontitis was malocclusion, or a shortened frenulum, the first thing the specialist will undertake for correction of anatomical disorders. Age limitation exists.
Very often, surgical treatment of periodontitis is supplemented or replaced by a procedure of laser curettage. This is a bloodless, minimally invasive method that requires local anesthesia only in patients with a low pain threshold.
In Western Europe, laser curettage for the treatment of periodontitis has been used for about 15 years. Experience has shown that the method is effective in all forms of the disease, and ensures stable, long-term effect.
During the procedure the doctor applies a gum gel photosensitizer. Then enters the light guide apparatus deep in the affected periodontal pocket. The next step is activation of the gel with a thin laser beam, which immediately coagulates the infected tissue. And destruction shall be solely pathogenic flora, to healthy areas of gingiva no laser, no photosensitizer any influence do not render.
The result of the laser treatment of periodontitis – a complete sterilization of periodontal pockets, the walls of which immediately after the procedure forms a protective film photocoagulation. It prevents the penetration between the gum and tooth disease-causing bacteria and promotes rapid closure of the periodontal pocket.
The duration of the procedure laser curettage is not more than 3 minutes. If the disease is detected at an early stage, to completely cure the affected areas in just one visit to the dentist. In advanced cases may require 2 or more treatments with an interval of 1 week.
At the initial stage of development of periodontitis to eliminate inflammation of the gums is possible by simply removing the Tartar. Such cleaning of the teeth is called scaling, and is carried out using ultrasonic instruments. One of the most common – the apparatus “Vector”, the development of the German company Durr Dental.
Unlike traditional scaling, Vector cope with deposits painless for the patient. Under high pressure, the device delivers to the area being treated polishing slurry Fluid Polish that destroys the biofilm on the tooth surface without affecting the cement of the root, or trauma to soft tissue. This sensitive approach enables not only to shorten the period of treatment of periodontal disease, but without the use of antibiotics.
Vector-therapy is indicated in patients with any stage of periodontal disease. At the early stage method leads to a complete cure. In more advanced cases, ultrasonic scaling is preceded by surgical treatment.
Treatment with medicines in the home
Treatment of periodontitis is always complex. But if surgical methods are shown not all and not always, and increasingly replacing hardware procedures, drug therapy is a required element of treatment.
It includes a reception:
- steroid and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs;
- immunomodulatory means.
To deal with periodontitis independently at home impossible! No miracle toothpastes, magical toothbrushes and even injections won’t help if you do not correct the root cause of inflammation is bacterial plaque and Tartar. Therefore, the medical method of treatment of periodontitis will bear fruit only after a dentist cleaning teeth, and if necessary, surgical intervention.
In almost all cases, to treat the periodontitis, the dentists insist on antibiotics. They can be local, in the form of ointments or gels. But most prescribers of broad spectrum: “Trichopolum”, “Doxycycline”, “Metronidazole”. Recommend to take them in tablet form and, less frequently, the dentist may recommend injections.
Treatment of folk remedies
To strengthen the gums and reduce inflammation, especially at the initial stage of the disease, help methods, known to our grandmothers.
Most importantly, remember: the people’s treatment must be agreed with the attending physician and performed under his supervision.
The most effective means for the treatment of gum disease are:
- Massage gums in a circular motion the pads of thumbs. Hold it in the morning and evening for 5-10 minutes. So the effect was more noticeable at the same time with the massage, you should RUB in the soft tissues of the periodontium honey, oil of sea buckthorn or fir.
- Rinse. Performed immediately after brushing your teeth comfortable temperature decoction and diluted with water infusions. For their manufacture use the flowers of calendula, oak bark, series, celandine and needles.
- Application. You can use honey, beeswax, sea buckthorn oil, juice of Kalanchoe.
Is it possible to restore the gum
Periodontitis – disease, greatly impair the aesthetics of the smile. That is why dentistry has been successfully applied surgical method of restoring the gum gingivoplasty. With its help it is possible to change the height of the gums, to improve its structural condition and to restore atrophied tissue, or, conversely, to remove the excess.
Contraindications for surgery are: diabetes, cancer, reduced blood clotting, the inability to use anesthesia.
In other cases, after carrying out anti-inflammatory procedures and achieving stable remission, you can safely start with the doctor talking about gingivoplasty.
Types of periodontitis
To find the effective treatment, the dentist should determine the causes of periodontitis and to identify the nature of the disease. Therefore, the classification of periodontitis is not so much scientific interest, how many is fraught with the opportunity to predict the further development of the situation, and to choose those treatments that will give best results.
To diagnose a particular type of periodontitis is possible by 3 criteria: severity, course of the disease and the localization process.
To determine the severity of the disease dentists appreciate the depth of the periodontal pocket, tooth mobility and degree of resorption of bone tissue:
- when mild periodontitis teeth fixed, depth of gingival channel does not exceed 3.5 mm. The height of the interdental partitions still reduced slightly: not more than one-third of its length;
- with periodontitis of moderate severity, the height of the interdental partitions is reduced by half its length, deepening of periodontal pockets up to 5 mm, and the teeth slowly start to shift;
- the periodontitis can be seen with the naked eye even when talking to a person. Teeth shifted, the intervals between them are formed. And the patient complains of severe pain, bleeding and sometimes pus from the periodontal channels.
The periodontitis according to statistics, occurs in 15-20% of people over the age of 35 years.
The disease can be acute or chronic. The acute form of periodontitis is very rare, and captures not the entire mouth, and a small area of the gums. Occurs as a result of soft tissue injuries as a result of the strike, incorrectly installed crowns, a breakaway piece of a tooth.
Acute periodontitis develops immediately and causes a sharp pain with which the patient is usually in a hurry to the dentist. Chronic process is characterized by undulating course and covering the entire mouth. When the disease enters remission, the patient erroneously believes that he is completely cured. But after a few months it’s happening again, and this time the signs of inflammation are more pronounced.
With timely treatment to the doctor acute periodontitis can be cured quickly and effectively. If periodontal disease has become chronic, the forecasts are less favorable.
Depending on how extensive the territory was conquered by the pathological process, isolated periodontitis:
- localized or focal;
In the first case, the disease manifests itself in only one or a few teeth. And dentists said that the revitalization factors of the secondary scale. This means that to trigger the development of periodontitis could poor seal, the contact with the gum ARSENICAL paste or filling material, careless installation of the prosthesis and even damage to the gums flossing.
In generalized form of periodontitis affects the gums, connective and bone tissue in two tooth rows. This is characteristic of chronic course of the disease, which is much more difficult to treat.
Diagnosis of the disease
The main diagnostic method for suspected periodontal disease, the depth dimension of the gap between the gum and tooth. In a healthy person it does not exceed 1-2 mm. The procedure is carried out with the help of a periodontal probe, a thin instrument with millimeter incisions.
If the process is generalized, the doctor measures periodontal pockets of each tooth, recording the figures obtained and is periodontograph. In the future it will allow us to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment or, conversely, to detect progression of the disease.
Essential to the diagnosis of periodontal disease has an x-ray examination: a panoramic image or layer-by-layer scanning. It reveals a decline in bone tissue and its sclerotic changes.
In very severe cases the doctor may refer the patient for further examination to measure the degree of hypoxia in the gums, to determine the quality of the microcirculatory bed of periodontium and to investigate the bone density.
What can be complications
In the absence of treatment, periodontitis triggers both local and General complications, because periodontal pockets are a constant source of infection. Local complications include the loosening and subsequent loss of teeth. To the General development of infective endocarditis, atherosclerosis, gastritis, enterocolitis, rheumatoid arthritis. The big danger is periodontitis for pregnant women. They have the disease can lead to miscarriage and premature birth.
Prevention of periodontitis
The best prevention of periodontal disease is proper care of the oral cavity. Need to brush your teeth at least 2 times a day: before Breakfast and before bedtime. The procedure should take no less than 3 minutes, and the main motion when brushing from the root to the cutting edge of the tooth. Do not ignore dental floss – dental floss. They perfectly clean the interdental spaces and prevent the growth of harmful bacteria.
If the disease has manifested itself, pay attention to your toothbrush. Its bristles should be hard. And even if at first brushing your teeth with it will seem uncomfortable, over time, the gums will get used to it. Change your toothbrush with a new one every 1.5 months.