Traumatic shock: classification, degree, the algorithm first aid

Rapidly developing as the background of the received serious injuries, which is a direct threat to human life, called traumatic shock. As has become clear from the title, the reason for its development is a strong mechanical damage, unbearable pain. To act in such a situation should be promptly, as any delay in providing first aid could cost a patient’s life.

Causes of traumatic shock

The reason can be a severe injury the degree of development of fractures of the hip bones, gunshot or stab wounds, rupture of large blood vessels, burns, damage to internal organs. This may be injury to the most sensitive areas of the human body such as the neck or the crotch, or vital organs. The basis of their occurrence, as a rule, are of extreme circumstances.

Very often a painful shock develops when the wound of the great arteries, where there is a rapid loss of blood, and the body has no time to adapt to the new conditions.

Traumatic shock: pathogenesis

The principle of development of this disease is a chain reaction of traumatic conditions that carry serious consequences for the patient’s health and increasing one after another in stages.

Under intense, unbearable pain and high blood loss in our brain sends a signal, which causes him severe irritation. Abruptly, the brain allocates a large amount of adrenaline, this number is not typical of ordinary human life, it violates the functioning of the various systems.

If rapid blood loss occurs spasm of small vessels, for the first time, it helps to keep some of the blood. This condition to support long-term, our body can not, subsequently the blood vessels again dilate, and blood loss increases.

In the case of a closed injury the mechanism of action is similar. Through secreted hormones, blood vessels block the flow of blood and it is not a defensive response, but on the contrary is the basis for the development of traumatic shock. Subsequently, delayed a significant amount of blood, there is a lack of blood supply to the heart, respiratory system, hematopoietic system, brain, and other.

In the future there will be the intoxication of the organism, the vital systems are shutting down one after the other, from a lack of oxygen occurs necrosis of the tissue of internal organs. In the absence of first aid all of this leads to death.

The development of traumatic shock on the background of injuries with heavy blood loss, considered the most difficult.

In some cases, restoration of an organism in mild to moderate pain may occur independently, although such a patient should also be first aid.

Symptoms and stages of traumatic shock

The symptoms of traumatic shock are pronounced, and depend on the stage.

Stage 1 – erectile

Lasts from 1 to several minutes. The injury and unbearable pain provoke the patient’s unusual condition, he can cry, scream, be extremely excited and even to resist assistance. The skin becomes pale, acts clammy sweat, disturbed the rhythm of breathing and heartbeat.

At this stage it is already possible to judge the intensity of shown pain than she is brighter – the stronger and faster will occur the subsequent stage of shock.

Stage 2 – tarpeena

Has the rapid development. The patient’s condition dramatically changes and becomes lethargic, lost consciousness. However, the patient still feels pain, be extremely careful in manipulating the first aid.

The skin becomes paler, develops cyanosis of the mucous membranes, the pressure drops, the pulse is barely detectable. The subsequent step will be the development of dysfunction of internal organs.

The degree of development of traumatic shock

Symptoms toroidal stage can have a different intensity and severity, depending on this distinction, the degree of development of a painful shock.

1 degree

Satisfactory condition, clear consciousness, the patient clearly understands what is happening and answer questions. Hemodynamic parameters are stable. Perhaps slightly accelerated breathing and pulse. Frequently occurs in fractures of large bones. Easy traumatic shock has a favorable forecast of development. The patient should be assisted in accordance with the received trauma, is to give analgesics and deliver treatment in a hospital.

2 degree

Marked retardation of the patient, it may take a while to answer the question and doesn’t understand when. Pale skin, limbs may acquire cyanotic hue. Blood pressure is lowered, the pulse is frequent, but weak. The lack of help can trigger the development of the next degree of shock.

3 degree

The patient is unconscious or in a state of stupor, reaction to stimuli is virtually absent, pale skin. A sharp decline in blood pressure, pulse frequent, but poorly-palpable even on large vessels. The prognosis of this condition, little favourable, especially if the procedure does not carry a positive dynamics.

4 degree

Fainting, lack of pulse, extremely low blood pressure or lack of it. The survival rate in this condition is minimal.


The main principle of treatment with the development of traumatic shock – immediate actions to normalize the state of health of the patient.

First aid in traumatic shock should be carried out immediately, carry clear and decisive action.

First aid for traumatic shock

What action is necessary is determined from the type of injury and cause of development of traumatic shock, the final decision comes on the actual circumstances.

If you are a witness to the development of human pain, it is recommended to immediately take the following actions:

  • To call the ambulance.
  • If a person has a knife or shrapnel wound, do not remove the injury from the wound, as this may precipitate severe bleeding. If a person received severe and extensive burns, remove clothes also contraindicated.
  • Stopping bleeding. Depending on the type of injury and the localization it can be overlay gauze bandage, harness, or plugging the wound.

A tourniquet is applied with arterial bleeding (blood fountain) is applied above the wound site. Can be used continuously for 40 minutes, then you should make him an indulgence for 15 minutes.

When a proper tourniquet the bleeding stops. In other cases, damage to the applied compressive bandage or gauze swab.

  • To provide free access of air. To remove or unfasten compressive clothing and accessories, remove foreign objects from respiratory passages. The patient is unconscious should be laid on its side.
  • Warming treatments. As we already know, traumatic shock may occur in the blanching and cold extremities, in this case, it should cover the patient or to provide additional heat.
  • Painkillers. The ideal option in this case would be intramuscular injection of the analgesic means. In an extreme situation, try to give the patient a pill of aspirin sublingually (under the tongue for the fastest action).
  • Transportation. Depending on the injuries and their location need to define a method of transporting a patient. Transportation should be done only in the case when waiting for medical help may take a very long time.
  • To disturb and excite the patient, make it move!
  • To shift or move a patient with bone fractures!
  • To leave the patient alone.
  • Insert the damaged joint or to repair other damage, as it is likely that it will strengthen traumatic shock.
  • To overlay bus without first stopping the bleeding.

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