The first difference is visible on the surface – in the amount of toxoids. It has already been said that vaccination is a big burden on the body, therefore it is recommended to be vaccinated against several diseases at the same time in order to reduce the multiplicity of prophylactic vaccinations. ADS-M contains a greater number of units of diphtheria toxoid than AD-M, which affects the duration of the formed immunity.
Tetanus and diphtheria pose a great threat to the body and in order to protect it and protect itself from serious complications and the likelihood of a fatal outcome, it is necessary to think about specific prevention – once every 10 years. The use of AD-M is a thing of the past due to the lack of registration of patients with diphtheria and the need to vaccinate people at risk for diphtheria, as there is a combination vaccine ADS-M.
Diphtheria – a dangerous infection, spreads by airborne droplets, affects the tonsils, pharynx, as well as the nervous and cardiovascular systems. To protect against diphtheria, you need to put a vaccine. The peculiarity of the prevention of this infection is that the more people vaccinated in a particular area, the less likely the spread of the disease. In the sanitary rules, the percentage of vaccinated people should be equal to 95%. There are several diphtheria vaccines. Mostly used AD-M and ADS-M.
Anatoxin Diphtheria adsorbed with reduced antigen content (AD-M)
This is a monovalent vaccine, that is, it contains only diphtheria toxins. It is considered one of the safest vaccines. The vaccine contains five units of diphtheria antitoxin, iron hydroxide and a preservative.
Before vaccination, it is necessary to take a blood test for serological testing – to determine the number of antibodies against diphtheria in the blood, if the result is within normal limits, then there is no need to be vaccinated.
Vaccination against diphtheria is mandatory and approved by the national calendar of the Russian Federation, therefore, in the absence of a desire to be vaccinated, adults have the right to write a refusal for themselves or the child.
Anatoxin Diphtheria adsorbed with a low amount of antigen (AD-M)
It was usually used after an increase in the incidence of diphtheria in a specific territory as an emergency prevention of persons not vaccinated before – to protect them. Given that in the Russian Federation for two years there have been no cases of diphtheria, the need for a vaccine is gradually disappearing.
If you do not have a tetanus vaccine, then it makes no sense to put only diphtheria toxoid, since each vaccine prophylaxis is compared with surgery, because it is a big burden on the immune system, and it’s better to put several vaccines in different places at one time. AD-M is also used in cases where a person has already developed immunity against tetanus and there is no reason for him to be vaccinated with ADS-M.
Anatoxin Diphtheria-tetanus with reduced antigen content (ADS-M)
Contains weakened toxins of diphtheria and tetanus. Tetanus is a dangerous infectious disease transmitted through the contact mechanism and characterized by damage to the nervous system, in particular seizures. Tetanus can be transmitted by any injuries (knife, bullet, cut, etc.), animal bites (dogs, rodents and pigs) and medical manipulations using a sterile instrument. The only effective preventative measure is vaccination.
ADS-M is a Russian drug created to maintain immunity after DTP. The vaccine contains ten units of diphtheria antitoxin, ten binding units of tetanus toxoid, iron hydroxide and a preservative.
Indications for use:
- Children at 6 and 16 years old. Prior to this, children are vaccinated with DTP vaccine – pertussis-tetanus-diphtheria vaccine;
- Adults once every 10 years, that is, 26, 36, 46, 56 years old and so on;
- Persons who do not have information about vaccinations against diphtheria and tetanus;
- Children under 6 years old with whooping cough;
- Children who have contraindications to DTP;
- Emergency prophylaxis of tetanus and diphtheria;
The drug can be administered together with other vaccines in accordance with the national calendar of vaccinations.
Important! Emergency tetanus prophylaxis should be carried out within 20 days after a likely infection.
Anatoxin is obtained by laboratory adsorption from Corynobacterium diphtheria (diphtheria pathogen). The purpose of adsorption is the accumulation of bacterial toxins (liquid phase) on aluminum hydroxide (solid phase) due to the separation of the two phases. After collection, toxins are weakened by formalin and exposure to high temperatures for safe vaccination.
Particles of the pathogen, even weakened, after entry into the body trigger immunity. The body works out the response to a specific pathological agent and forms specific antibodies (protein compounds). With the subsequent penetration of the pathogen into the body, it is destroyed by antibodies developed in advance.
|Routine vaccination of children||High sensitivity to the components of the drug||Exacerbation of a chronic disease|
|Persons vaccinated more than 10 years ago, as well as not having information about vaccination against diphtheria||Severe reaction to previous vaccine administration||Allergy|
|Emergency Diphtheria Prevention||AIDS||The use of cytostatics|
Mode of application
Vaccinated against diphtheria in a medical institution in vaccination or treatment rooms. Vaccines should be stored in a separate refrigerator at a temperature of 4 to 8 degrees Celsius. The vaccine is administered intramuscularly (upper right quadrant of the buttock or upper thigh), and also deeply subcutaneously (under the scapula). Before vaccination, the doctor should interview the patient for complications, strong reactions to vaccines in the past and conduct an examination to determine the general condition with the measurement of blood pressure and body temperature. Before the procedure, the doctor is obliged to inform about the need for vaccination and possible reactions of the body. After the vaccine is administered, it is necessary to be in a medical organization under medical supervision for 30 minutes.
Side effects and complications after the administration of AD-M and ADS-M
The injection site may include itching, swelling, swelling and redness. Common reactions include weakness, fever, angioedema, and anaphylactic shock. After strong reactions to the vaccine, such people stop planned specific prophylaxis.
Important! The likelihood of a severe allergic reaction is less than the possibility of infection and the severity of the disease in the absence of vaccination!