An increase in the pressure of aqueous humor in the chambers of the eye combines two mechanisms: due to the reduced outflow through the natural drainage system and an increase in the rate of fluid formation inside the eye.
Therefore, eye drops in glaucoma are also divided into two main groups: to improve the outflow or reduce the formation of aqueous humor. There are eye drops that are used to treat glaucoma and to prevent this ailment. There is also a group of eye drops of combined action, these drugs are prescribed only under the supervision of an ophthalmologist.
Drops are used to treat different forms of glaucoma, but mostly a chronic form of the disease. With angle-closure glaucoma, an increase in intraocular pressure occurs sharply, in the form of an attack. At this stage, even the best drugs will no longer help; preservation of vision is possible only surgically.
All medicines have side effects, and even good drops are no exception. Indications for the use of certain drugs can be objectively evaluated only by a doctor, respectively, and prescribe too.
As for contraindications, as a rule, these are local disorders in the form of redness, burning, pain in the eyes, and a decrease in visual acuity for the period of action of the drops. Special contraindications for use in children or pregnant women should be looked at directly in the instructions for a particular drug.
Medicines that improve the outflow of intraocular fluid
This is a group of medicines that reduce the level of pressure of the ocular fluid by increasing the outflow through the drainage system. Eye drops from glaucoma differ in the active substance, the duration of the effect and the composition of the active components.
The action of eye drops from glaucoma is directed to the muscles or vasculature of the eye, the result is stabilization and a decrease in eye pressure.
Prostaglandins are mainly used in the open-angle form of glaucoma. They reduce intraocular pressure due to the impact on the muscles of the drainage network, relax it, thereby expanding the diameter of the outflow system.
Names of drops in this group:
The cost of the above drops to reduce intraocular pressure is from 485 to 965 rubles. The main active substance and the mechanism for reducing IOP are approximately the same.
It is necessary to bury one drop at night in each eye, if only one eye suffers from glaucoma, then it is not necessary to bury in a healthy one. If you use contact lenses, you need to remove them, drip your eyes, and after 15-20 minutes you can put them on again.
Contraindication – an allergy to any of the components of the drug, should be used with caution during pregnancy and lactation.
The reaction to the drug may be accompanied by:
- burning sensation;
- tingling sensation;
- corneal redness;
- decreased visual acuity;
- dry eyes;
But these are all secondary reactions. The basis is enhanced pigmentation of the iris, up to a complete color change of one or both eyes.
This type of eye preparation stimulates the ciliary receptors, which leads to a decrease in the amount of intraocular fluid produced and a gradual decrease in pressure.
The preparations are shown strictly for open-angle glaucoma.
Name of drug and cost:
- Oftan-dipivefrin – 150 rubles;
- Glaucon-Epifrin – 350 rubles.
It is instilled one drop into the affected eye twice a day. After using the drug, itching, redness, burning in the eyes, headache, tearing are observed during the first few minutes.
It is necessary to store drops no more than a month after opening the factory packaging in a dark place, at a low temperature.
A herbal medicine, extracted from the leaves of a tropical plant. The mechanism of action of these drugs is to narrow the pupil and increase the tone of smooth muscles, which contributes to the opening of the iris-corneal angle and a better outflow of fluid. Cholinomimetics are used to eliminate glaucoma, and angle-closure, including, except for the stage of exacerbation or the period after surgery.
The main drugs of this series:
- Pilocarpine – 40 rubles;
- Carbachol – 144-159 rubles;
- Aceclidine is available only with inpatient treatment.
Cholinomimetics are available in the form of drops, powder, solutions, eye films and ointments. Assigned 2-4 times a day or at night. Since the main action of the drug is to increase muscle tone, it can be contraindicated during pregnancy, epilepsy, bronchial asthma, angina pectoris. It all depends on the form of application and dosage.
Side effects: discomfort, redness, allergic reaction to the composition of the drug.
Water Reducing Agents
Glaucoma is provoked by high intraocular pressure. Anti-glaucoma drops, which affect the amount of watery moisture produced, are a way to reduce it. Acting on receptors of ciliary cells, the drug reduces the production of intraocular fluid, thereby reducing the volume of the anterior chamber of the eye and disrupting refraction, this can form false myopia.
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
The action of these drugs reduces intraocular pressure by about 20%. A feature is the fact that the drugs are synthetically derived to minimize the number of possible adverse reactions.
Preparations of this group:
- Dorzolamide – 500 rubles;
- Brinzolamide – 840 rubles;
- Trusopt – 600 rubles;
- Azopt – 430 rubles.
Before use, you must shake the bottle and heat it in your hands to body temperature, bury it three times a day. A local reaction is possible in the form of itching, lacrimation, a bitter taste in the mouth.
Beta adrenergic blockers
This is a specific group of drugs that, when improperly dosed, has a negative effect on the cardiovascular system of the body. The action occurs 15 minutes after instillation and lasts for 24 hours.
- Timolol – 280 rubles;
- Okamed – 70 rubles;
- Arutimol – 60 rubles;
- Betaxolol – 365 rubles;
- Xonef – 180 rubles;
- Betoptic – 370 rubles.
Instill the drug 1 drop twice a day, while dryness, redness and discomfort in the eyes may disturb. These drugs are combined with other medicines as prescribed by your doctor.
Alpha-2 adrenergic agonists
They also reduce the amount of intraocular fluid produced, while expanding the drainage system of the outflow. A very effective antihypertensive drug in the treatment of open angle glaucoma.
Preparations of this group:
- Clonidine (another name Clonidine) – 340 rubles;
- Brimonidine – 510 rubles.
It is necessary to bury twice a day, 1 drop in each eye. It is not prescribed during pregnancy, children and nursing mothers. Side effects: drowsiness, burning, dry eyes.
These multicomponent eye drops that reduce IOP help out with complex types of glaucoma. They have proven themselves in the treatment of glaucoma.
Consider the main list:
- Ksalak (Latanoprost and Timolol) – 740 rubles;
- Cosopt (Dorzolamide and Timolol) – 955 rubles;
- Azarga (Brinzolamide and Timolol) – 1000 rubles;
- DuoTrav (Travoprost and Timolol) – 930 rubles;
- Dorzopt Plus (Dorzolamide and Timolol) – 635 rubles;
- Fotil (Pilocarpine and Timolol) – 290 rubles.
Efficiency is primarily associated with a combined effect on various structures of the eye, as well as a decrease in the amount and frequency of use of the drug. But the risk increases in proportion to the combination of complications and contraindications for each of the components.
How to choose effective eye drops
What to choose eye drops? What anti-glaucoma eye drops are most effective and why, you will learn from the following video:
Only a doctor prescribes drops, depending on the stage and type of glaucoma, self-medication is strictly contraindicated, since the consequences can lead to disability.