Diverticulosis bowel – disease in which the walls of the intestine are formed, diverticula are small in size (up to 2 cm) Grizedale education, bulging towards the peritoneal cavity. Distinguish between true and false diverticula, congenital and acquired. In the overwhelming number of cases the development of diverticula occurs after birth as a result of wrong diet and other provocateurs pathology.
If in the cavity of the intestine revealed multiple diverticula are diagnosed with diverticulosis of the intestine. Inflammation of the diverticula diverticulitis talking about, and the term “diverticular disease” includes the presence of diverticulosis of the bowel and complications of the disease. The symptoms and treatment depend on the stage of development of pathology.
The causes of diverticula in the intestine
Despite the fact that there is a congenital form of the disease, to explain the pathology of connective tissue, the epidemiology of the disease indicates quite precisely the causes of diverticula.
The age characteristics of the patients:
- at the age of 30 years, the percentage incidence is very low;
- in the age period from 40 to 60 years, the presence of diverticula occur in 30% of the population;
- in the retirement age, from 60 to 80 years in 60% of patients the examination revealed the presence of diverticula in the intestinal canal;
- after 80 years, the diagnosis of diverticulosis of intestine put 8 out of 10 patients.
Besides age the risk of formation of diverticula, there are complex social, cultural and economic factors, which is expressed in the availability of different food types and their preferences. So, in States with weak economies and also in regions where traditionally the diet has a lot of fiber (vegetables, cereals), a disease virtually unknown to the population.
During the examination of patients the presence of diverticula in different parts of the intestine is practically not registered in the countries of Asia and Africa regardless of age groups.
In countries with developed economies and by gravity to an unbalanced diet, the abundance of fast food, flour and meat dishes marked characteristic of the age periods the pattern of spread of the disease. Russia is no exception, and in recent decades, the incidence approaches the level of Western countries. Experts say a rapid decrease age limit: 20 years ago the presence of diverticula was observed only in 5% of people up to 50 years.
Causes of diverticulosis of the intestines
According to most experts, diverticulosis of intestine, is a disease that develops due to increased pressure of stool or gas accumulations on the bowel wall. In some cases, there may be a predisposition to the formation of diverticula in the form of connective tissue pathologies, but the triggering factor is an unbalanced diet. The use of products that contribute to the formation of a dense bolus of small volume, and lack of fiber, leading to increased pressure on the walls, resulting in “weak” areas, where are the vessels formed by the protrusion of the diverticulum.
By precipitating factors include dysfunction and diseases of the digestive tract, followed by chronic constipation, flatulence.
The symptoms are often mild, leading to an inadequate diagnosis of the disease.
If you have multiple diverticula may experience some symptoms that most often the patients themselves do not consider symptoms that require evaluation and treatment.
- The change of the mode of defecation (habitual constipation with the absence of the chair more than a day or, on the contrary, acceleration of the rhythm).
- The feeling of discomfort, heaviness, sometimes pain in the abdomen, with the European population often in the left and lower parts of the abdomen.
- Flatulence, bloating, flatulence.
- Painless bleeding from the back passage, the inclusion of blood in the stool may indicate erosion of a blood vessel near the diverticulum.
The presence of diverticula is not always accompanied by any symptoms, but if these symptoms are, they can also mention diverticulitis inflammation of the diverticula.
Acute diverticulitis accompanied by pain in the affected Department of the mucosa, severe violation of the chair is an occasion for emergency treatment until the removal of the bowel segment.
Complications of diverticular disease
If the presence of diverticula asymptomatic and does not cause discomfort if the treatment of the disease? Diverticular disease is dangerous the complications, diverticulitis, and at some stages it can lead to disability and death. Constant trauma to the mucosa leads to erosive changes of the mucosa, inflammation may cause the perforation of the modified surface with a feces infection of the abdominal cavity, peritonitis. Perforation of the diverticulum – cause of the formation of fistulas with access to the bladder, vagina, and other adjacent organs and tissues. Bleeding that occurs when injury to the vessels located next to the diverticula, often lead to anemia patients.
No matter how mild or no noticeable symptoms of the disease, diverticulosis of the bowel should be treated.
Not so long ago when the diagnosis of diverticulitis, the inflammatory process in the affected areas of the mucosa, all recommended surgical treatment, removal of the bowel segment. The risks of life-threatening relapse following the recommendations of experts and conservative therapy are considered to be quite low, therefore at any stage of diverticular disease (excluding acute) assigned to the first diet.
Treatment is aimed at normalizing the consistency and volume of feces and reduced severity of intestinal spasm that success is achieved by the correct diet (and in related physical inactivity – a lifestyle change to more mobile).
The food should include the so-called ballast substances indigestible fiber, and foods that have a stimulating effect on the motility of the lower GI tract:
- bran of any kind, 2-3 tablespoons per day. Can be used as an additive to breads, cereals, dairy products, etc.;
- crude varieties of rice (wild, brown);
- to 500 g of vegetables and fruit a day, preferably raw, boiled, steamed;
- wholegrain cereals or porridge made from whole, crushed grain;
- products from wheat flour.
It is necessary to strictly limit all animal products (except dairy), recommended number is not more than 150 g meat and fish per day. The optimal ratio is considered 1 piece pet products, and 4 pieces of vegetable (vegetables, fruits, grains).
The limitation may also be fried, spicy, salty, canned foods, prepared foods, bakery products (pastries), sweets.
In the presence of symptoms of pain and spasms your doctor may recommend administration of antispasmodic drugs. The tendency to constipation the use of laxatives is possible only after consultation with a specialist, a separate appointment of any types of laxatives is dangerous complications.