The virus is transmitted after the start of sexual activity, the main way of transmission is sexual. The main method of protection against HPV infections is vaccination: the vaccine protects against the most common 16 and 18, approved and applied in different countries.
About why important HPV vaccination when to vaccinate and whether vaccination of women after 30 years, edition of the News.Medicine told Professor, Department of obstetrics and gynecology, Moscow state University of medicine Galina Minkin.
The vaccine protects against HPV infections and associated with this infection diseases. The most impressive experience related to HPV vaccination, has been gained in Australia, Finland, Denmark. There is mass vaccination started in 2007, just a year after the first vaccine that protects against human papillomavirus. The program of mass vaccination of adolescents 12-13 years funded in these countries at the state level.
The HPV vaccine, as with any preventive vaccine is administered to a meeting with virus – adolescents vaccinated against HPV before sexual activity. In countries where mass vaccination is carried out, after a few years when vaccinated adolescents become sexually active, it became clear that this vaccination is really effective: decreased incidence of genital warts and the prevalence of infections caused by vaccine type of virus, then the frequency of precancerous changes of the cervix.
And recently from Finland obtained first data on the reduction in the vaccinated women the incidence of invasive cancers. In Russia HPV vaccination is not included in the national calendar, but the program of vaccination of adolescents conducted in several Russian regions. The first was the Moscow region, but then the initiative was picked up by other regions, such as Sverdlovsk oblast and Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug. In some regions, the programme lasted only one year, and in others, as in Moscow, he works to this day.
In order for such a program, and worked effectively, it is necessary to train doctors, women, and parents of teenagers. Parents are often afraid to vaccinate girls, considering that the vaccine could cause infertility, and thus scientific evidence of this fact.
To vaccinate against HPV is necessary and boys. Currently, 86 countries have included the HPV vaccine in their national immunization programme, 16 of them are vaccinated and girls and boys – in number is not included.
Vaccination in all girls and boys before sexual life. It is permitted in 9 years, but usually do 12-13-year-olds. Additionally, it is recommended to get the vaccine to young sexually active women up to 25-26 years: this is what happened in Australia, except when teenage girls began to vaccinate young girls. Makes sense to be vaccinated and older women. It is proved that the vaccine won’t harm you, and some benefit to bring every woman can.
The risk of acquiring HPV infection remains throughout the sexual life of women every year 5-15% of middle-aged women contract the infection caused by oncogenic type of human papillomavirus. Vaccination has been done in the adult age, can protect a woman against infection with the types of viruses that she has not yet encountered, and also reduce the risk of recurrent HPV-related diseases. Thus, any visit of the women to 45 years to the gynecologist can be an occasion to discuss vaccination against HPV.
Today HPV vaccination in conjunction with cervical screening (regular cervical screening) has the potential to completely control the incidence of cervical cancer.