A certain amount of acetone is always present in the human body, as this substance is a byproduct of the decay in metabolic processes. But the amount is so small that you have to define it using the standard laboratory urinalysis impossible.
If a person’s urine smells like acetone and clinically proven the presence of ketone bodies (acetone derivative) in the urine, then it comes to such a condition as ketonwrïya.
The process of the emergence and possible complications of the presence of acetone in urine
Normal carbohydrates entering the body are subjected to complex chemical processes, in which the blood glucose is the main source of energy. If for some reason there is a failure in the supply of glucose, the body begins to metabolize its own proteins and fats. As a result of their incomplete oxidation are highlighted in ketone bodies that appear through body fluids, that’s why urine smells like acetone. While circulating through the bloodstream, ketones, as well as any toxic substance that adversely affect brain cells, blood, liver, pancreas, etc.
Compounds acetone irritate the lining of the stomach, leading to prolonged vomiting, resulting in dehydration of the fittest
Damage of heart tissues and blood vessels may lead to the development of heart failure and therefore severe conditions.
The most dangerous among the possible complications is coma with possible fatal consequences.
But, ketonwrïya is a reversible condition if diagnosed in the early stages. The incidences of acetone in the urine return to normal after 1-2 days after the start of treatment. So the smell of acetone in the urine, vomit, saliva or sweat, need to give a reason to urgently see a doctor.
Causes in adults
Urine smelling of acetone can occur due to many factors that can be divided into 2 groups: external and internal.
The external causes acetone urine odor include:
- dehydration (lack of fluid intake, high ambient temperature, excessive exercise, etc.);
- a stressful situation, which requires large amounts of energy (surgery, mental stress, lack of sleep, etc.);
- unbalanced diet (excessive consumption of fatty meats and fish, the lack in the diet of carbohydrates, strict dieting, fasting);
- alcoholic intoxication, especially if the condition is accompanied by vomiting and diarrhea;
- heavy metal poisoning;
- brain injury, including concussion.
If acetone smell is present not only in the urine, then medical attention is required immediately
Internal factors that provoke the appearance of ketones in the blood are:
- stomach cancer;
- physiological changes in the oesophagus and the pylorus (narrowing of their diameter);
- the lack of a pancreas (it may occur on the background of different diseases). When this occurs, an enzyme deficiency that affects the processes of digestion of food;
- diabetes (any type);
- tumors, trauma and other disorders in the brain and nervous system;
- excess thyroid gland. This leads to an acceleration of all metabolic processes and leads to an imbalance of receipt and processing of food;
- morning sickness in pregnancy in women;
- infectious diseases, especially accompanied by high body temperature.
In adult men, the increase of the acetone is very rare. This is due to the fact that 85% of all people identifying this condition are pregnant women and children.
Ketonwrïya in children
In the last decade, the diagnosis of the high rate of ketone bodies in children occurs more often.
Ketonwrïya have caused children in most cases, errors in the mode of drinking and nutrition, at least – existing diseases
So, excessive workload (including mental) lead to disruption of metabolic processes, eating foods high in fats, preservatives and dyes will only aggravate the situation.
Physiological features of an organism of the child up to 12 years can also affect the secretion of ketone bodies:
- inconclusive generated pancreas produces insufficient enzymes for digestion. If the child’s diet is not balanced, it can occur that the adverse reaction;
- greater physical activity is inherent to children requires a tremendous amount of energy the body gets from glucose. When it deficiency can develop ketonwrïya. Therefore, children need to eat foods that contain carbohydrates and sugar in moderation;
- the appearance of acetone in the urine of infants may indicate congenital or acquired pathologies of brain development. Most often they are reversible and caused by the heavy labor, hypoxia, etc.
The appearance of urine odor of acetone in children can provoke the same reason as an adult:
- the increase in body temperature on the background of infectious diseases;
- diabetes mellitus;
- head injury;
- the physical and mental fatigue.
Whatever the root cause, refer for medical attention, and the collection of tests is required.
Acetone in the urine during pregnancy
In pregnant women, the acetone in the urine is found more often than other people.
The most common causes of this condition are toxemia and malnutrition.
Ketonwrïya in pregnant women requires special attention, as even small doses of acetone in the blood can adversely affect the health of the future baby
A slight appearance of acetone in the blood manifests itself as an unpleasant sensations in the region of the gastrointestinal tract and symptoms of intoxication.
So, adults observed:
- the sharp pain of a paroxysmal character in the abdomen;
- refusal of food and fluids;
- frequent episodes of vomiting and nausea.
When you increase and more prolonged untreated, begin to show more severe symptoms.
From the nervous system: apathy and drowsiness, which appear abruptly after an excited state. Long-term preservation of high rates is fraught with coma.
Symptoms of intoxication: fever, dryness of mucous membranes and skin, weakness, decrease in urine output, etc.
The smell of acetone. Smell can not only urine but also other secreted fluids.
The increase in size of the liver. When ketonuria appointed ultrasound of the abdominal organs to assess the condition of the liver and the degree of tissue damage other organs.
The most striking and specific symptom of acetone in the urine of the child is uncontrollable vomiting that occurs after eating and after drinking. There are also other symptoms in adults with ketonuria.
To identify the presence of acetone in the body, conducting clinical analyses of urine and blood. This can be done in an outpatient setting (in clinic) or use test strips for home use. While in the laboratory is not merely the presence of ketones, but also by their level. While the test strips will simply determine the presence of acetone and can show the relative volume. Both studies are held in the morning on the first portion of the urine.
If ketonwrïya has been confirmed, it is recommended to hand over the biochemical analysis of blood with definition of key performance indicators and also measure the level of sugar to the exclusion or confirmation of diabetes
As hardware methods of diagnostics performed ultrasound examination of abdominal cavity.
If you suspect other disease and failure of initial treatment methods may require additional methods of investigation (CT, MRI, blood tests for tumor markers, etc.).
Acetone in the urine is not a diagnosis, so before treatment to determine the underlying cause of this condition.
First confirm the absence of diabetes, then begin restoration of water and electrolyte balance by oral or intravenous saline electrolyte solution and glucose. In parallel, given oral absorbents, and if necessary, drugs that stop vomiting.
If confirmed diabetes, then the treatment will be aimed at stabilizing the level of sugar in blood, after which the acetone in the urine will disappear on its own within 2 days.
Upon detection of other diseases is treatment with concurrent rehydration and correction of diet. Such measures contribute to the excessive disappearance of acetone from the body.
Observation of children and women during pregnancy is best done in a hospital.
Treatment at home
With a slight indicators of acetone in the urine of healthy people, the treatment can be performed at home.
Therapy is to adjust the mode and food components, the use of fluid and essential minerals, as well as eliminating the symptoms of intoxication
Diet in the detection of acetone:
- exclude all fatty meats (lamb, pork), fried foods, red fish, meats, broth, mushrooms, canned food, pickles, offal, sour cream, coffee, cream, citrus, cocoa;
- recommended: vegetarian soups, fruit, cereal, baked apples, jam, sweetened tea, compote of raisins and dried fruit, biscuits (like app), dried bread.
Has the value and frequency of the supply, it must be fractional and regular (at least 5 times a day).
Fluid intake it is better to combine with the use of oral rehydration solution.
The mode of the day should include plenty of sleep and temporary rejection of the physical and emotional stress. For children for the period of treatment it is better to abandon computer games and watching TV.
Ketonwrïya more often than not require in its treatment the use of medicines and disappears on its own after normalization and balancing power.