Prostate cancer is diagnosed so often that a number of studies to determine the etiological causes and the prevention of illness.
Although the main risk factor for development of prostate tumors is aging, more attention is paid to the role of proper nutrition in the development and progression of cancer.
Of course, diet for prostate cancer depends on the stage of the disease and the individual characteristics of men. The main goal is slowing the reproduction of abnormal cells, tumor growth and metastasis
Special diet for prostate cancer as the sole measures will not bring significant results, but in combination with surgery, chemotherapy and radiolucencies (in various combinations) can improve the patient’s quality of life and allows to some extent to control the guidance.
Ideally, stick to the basic principles of healthy eating need from a young age, however not everyone follows this statement, despite the fact that this measure would increase life expectancy.
One example of a power supply circuit for prostate cancer is the Mediterranean diet, which consists mainly of fruits and vegetables, nuts, seeds, olive oil, chicken and seafood.
The research was conducted, which demonstrated that adherence to this diet reduces the risk of death from prostate cancer and some other cancers.
It would be wrong to say that the Mediterranean diet is the only way to health. Models of the development of the diet variety, you can choose what is more suitable.
A proven fact that prostate volume correlated with body weight; in patients who are obese, gland size more. This means that the effectiveness of transrectal biopsy for the diagnosis of cancer at an initial stage is reduced and the PSA level increases (the larger the prostate, the higher figure), which creates certain difficulties in diagnosis.
What not from foods for prostate cancer
The basic principles that underpin the diet for prostate cancer:
- reduction in the consumption of red meat and its derivatives: sausages, sausage rolls, sausages, offal, etc.;
- sharp restriction in the diet of fat-containing products: butter, cream, fat sour cream, cheese and cottage cheese, milk, confectionery;
- the rejection of TRANS fats: mayonnaise, margarine, cooking oil, processed cheese, curd cheese;
- reducing products containing calcium: in addition to milk products, limit canned fish.
Avoid mushrooms, drogisterij products and marinades. Drink prohibited alcohol, strong coffee, soda.
Thus, the principles of diet in prostate cancer – a decrease in energy intake intake to 2500-2800 kcal/day by limiting fats, reducing the consumption of calcium.
During chemotherapy and radiation caloric intake did not decrease, as the body needs strength to fight, so the daily calorie is about 3500-3800 kcal.
It is important
The diet must include herbal products that contain natural substances that suppress the development of tumors.
Foods and nutrients in prostate cancer, their impact
The highest consumption of fatty foods per capita was in North America and Western Europe, cancer mortality rates in these regions are also the highest.
The introduction of Western diets in Japan, where traditional food with low fat content led to the increase in the incidence of aggressive prostate cancer.
Experiments in rodents have shown that a significant reduction of fat in the diet reduces the progression of prostate cancer.
Replace saturated fats with unsaturated provides protection from a number of problems.
30% fat of total daily energy intake.
Saturated fatsaccount for the largest share of all fats and are found in foods of animal origin:
- milk and dairy products;
- meat, chicken;
- fat, lard, etc.
Some cohort studies suggest a reduced risk of aggressive prostate cancer with increased consumption of fatty omega-3 acids. A list of the main products of the:
- fish and seafood;
- nuts and seeds;
- legumes and grains;
- leeks, cauliflower, spinach, greens;
- red berries: raspberries, strawberries;
- vegetable oils: olive, sunflower, peanut, linseed, soybean, almond, sesame.
When frying greatly increases the amount of TRANS fats, so all oils are best used in raw form.
Meat and prostate cancer
Experiments have shown a link between red meat consumption and cancer of the prostate, which
especially noticeable when the features of the preparation:
- prolonged use of high temperatures during frying;
- the use of open flame (barbecue, barbecue, hot dogs, etc.).
pyridines, etc. All contained in beef, lamb, pork, chicken (skin, legs), fish (less likely) or processed meat (sausages, sausages, smoked meats, etc.). Moreover, derivatives of meat high content of dangerous hidden fat.
The products must be subjected to only gentle heat treatment: boiling, baking, stewing.
Nutritionists recommend red meat (lamb, beef, pork, chicken legs with skin) is replaced by rabbit, Turkey, chicken breast, fish and soy products. Allowed the use of meat is not more than 100 g/day.
It is important
Experts believe that the risk of prostate cancer in men who prefer meat dishes above 1.2 times, compared with vegetarians.
A carotenoid found mainly in vegetables yellow, spinach, Brussels sprouts:
Lycopene is one of the predominant carotenoids in the plasma and in various tissues, including the prostate. It is found in watermelon, tomatoes, pink grapefruit, apricots, papaya, guava and persimmon. Carrots are rich in carotene, but low in lycopene.
According to some studies, high consumption of tomato products (10 or more servings a week) reduces the risk of developing prostate cancer by 20 – 35%, regardless of the number of fruits, vegetables and olive oil.
The study showed a statistically significant (10-20%) decrease in risk of prostate cancer in men who daily consumed tomatoes in any form.
Thermally processed tomatoes have a more powerful effect.
Other carotenoids – lutein, beta-cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin in need of further research.
Broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, Brussels sprouts contain many anticarcinogenic natural substances: sulforaphane and indole-3 – carbinol, which induce the production of antioxidant enzymes that protect cells from oxidative damage. Sulforaphane caused apoptosis (disintegration, death) of tumor cells. The results of experiments on animals have shown that indole-3 carbinol has antiproliferative and antimetastatic properties, are detrimental to cancer cells.
Selenium and prostate cancer
Selenium is an element necessary for proper body function. It is part of antioxidant enzymes and participates in many processes. The intake of foods rich in selenium, is a potential prevention of prostate cancer, and reduces the rate of cell division of tumor cells. The more it plasma, serum and tissues, the less the risk of developing malignant neoplasms.
Selenium is contained in Brazil, walnuts, fish and seafood (including canned tuna and shellfish), beef, Turkey, chicken, eggs, whole grains, garlic, onions, broccoli, cauliflower and mushrooms. One of the problems in obtaining a trace element is that the amount of selenium in plants depends on the soil.
Selenium has several forms, each of which may have different biological effects. It is believed that the protective activity of Selenium compounds is mediated through a metabolite — methylsilanol, which causes death of cancer cells.
About the effects of artificially selection by cancer there is no consensus.
So, a study was conducted that studied the effects of selenium in form of Selenomethionine 200 micrograms per day and vitamin E individually and in combination have more than 35,000 men. Results after 5 years of follow-up showed no significant difference between the additives and placebo, so the observation was terminated.
In addition, clinical trials of dietary supplements of Selenium on patients with a high risk of developing prostate cancer or localized prostate cancer is not proven effect on slowing progress of the disease, while, on the contrary, at high doses there is a probability of malignancy. This fact may dispel the myth of security and the use of unregulated dietary supplements.
It is important
Food sources of Selenium in the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer rather than chemically separated substances.
Vitamin E is a mixture of different Tocopherols antioxidant, protects against oxidative damage to the cell membrane and potentially reduces the level of testosterone. Vitamin E is a lipid-soluble antioxidant found in vegetable, nut oils (e.g., almond, cotton, sunflower), hazelnuts, sweet potatoes, whole grains and leafy.
Excessive uncontrolled use of vitamin E leads to the opposite effect, therefore, unacceptable.
Soy is a rich source of isoflavones:
In addition, soy is rich in vitamins and minerals.
These components affect cell growth, angiogenesis, production and metabolism of androgens and estrogens, which play an important role in the development and progression of prostate cancer.
Rejection soy is not justified, as animal experiments have shown that isoflavones have a preventive effect and reduce the growth of prostate cancer.
Polyphenols (green tea), coffee, and pomegranate
Known polyphenols – the catechins in green tea inhibit the growth of cancer cells. This statement is confirmed by experiments on animals.
Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) — the main ingredient of green tea leaves, inhibits biochemical reactions associated with cellular proliferation and leads to cell death.
EGCG is a potent inhibitor of carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (PhIP), which are present in overcooked or fried meat.
Some studies support increased consumption of green tea, natural Cup of coffee to reduce the risk of prostate cancer.
In General, the question of whether these drinks are tangible anti-cancer properties remains open.
Initial observations effect of pomegranate juice or extract testified about the use in the prevention of prostate cancer. Placebo-controlled studies have not demonstrated an effect in the fight against prostate cancer.
Pomegranate juice contains more calories than green tea or coffee without sugar, which can lead to weight gain. Thus, the use of pomegranate for prevention of prostate cancer is currently not supported.
It has been shown that excessive consumption of milk is associated with an increased risk of developing prostate cancer. Does it is high in fat, calories, calcium or serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), is not clear.
Scientists have suggested that a large amount of calcium in the diet reduces 1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D, which inhibits the growth of cancer cells. There are works that indicate that calcium increases the risk of developing prostate tumors. Calcium more than 1500 mg daily can induce an aggressive form of cancer.
Calcium from food is less dangerous than taking dietary supplements.
For prostate cancer allowed low-fat milk products: yogurt, fermented baked milk, curds, buttermilk, yogurt, etc.
Healthy people with a balanced diet consume around 11mg of zinc per day. Zinc is found in meat, vegetables, and legumes.
Conclusions about the zinc deficiency in men with prostate cancer and his vast influence on the tumor is allowed to assume about the protective role of this element.
But studies have shown that taking more than 100 mg of zinc daily, on the contrary, increases the risk of neoplastic process, and affects the organs of the urogenital tract.
Prostate cancer and multivitamins
With regard to taking multivitamin complexes, here the rule is: “more” does not mean “better”. Excessive intake of multivitamin complexes (more than 1 tablet a day) can lead to the opposite result.
Energy value and prostate cancer
Another important factor in the development of prostate cancer is considered a common calorie diet. Excessive calorie intake, regardless of source, can lead to obesity, which is associated with increased risk of prostate cancer.
Caloric restriction slows the development and progression of cancer, due to changes in metabolism, reduction of body weight and the ratio of fat reserves to the muscles.
Diet, insulin and prostate cancer
There is a theory that suggests the role of insulin in prostate cancer development, there is a hypothesis that higher levels promotes more rapid disease progressionand maintaining a low level slows the growth of cancer cells. This can be achieved only through diet.
Table of products with a low glycemic index was originally developed for patients with diabetes and account for the production of a certain quantity of insulin in response to consumption of a particular product.
The inclusion in the diet of foods with low glycemic index normalizes blood sugar levels and reduces the production of insulin.
According to the theory, with a low level of insulin the progression of prostate cancer is slowed.
In the 1920-ies Ohsawa and collaborators have popularized a diet that includes foods with a low glycemic index. This strict diet consists primarily of whole grains and vegetables with the exception of most fruits.
In contrast, diabetic diet restricts only the products with the highest glycemic index:
- White rice;
- Cakes, cakes;
- White bread;
All the products can reduce the risk of developing prostate cancer available. On the other hand, large-scale studies that clearly confirmed the benefit was held.
The media often appear contradictory messages that confuse the public and doctors. Differences in the methodology and interpretation of data complicate the comparison of research results.
To rely on diet for the treatment of prostate cancer is unacceptable, but special nutrition improves the quality and duration of life.
Feasible physical activity in combination with diet for prostate cancer can reduce the symptoms of depression and stress.
Victoria Mishina, urologist, medical columnist