Features and structure of human vertebrae

Any vertebra is very similar to another. He finds certain characteristics when it receives different load based on what Department is located.

It consists of body, this is the biggest part of it. It allows you to give a squeeze neighboring vertebra. The form it is cylindrical, it becomes larger when approaching to the lower back.

The body joins the arc with legs that forms a hole, and then the spinal canal. It is the spinal cord, nerves and blood vessels.There are also processes that depart from the arc.


In a healthy person there are 32-33 vertebrae. Namely:

  • 7 cervical;
  • 12 breast;
  • 5 lumbar;
  • the sacrum (5 pieces joined);
  • coccyx (3-4).

The vertebra has a solid part called the body. Attached to it arc. Which then forms the spinal canal where the nerves and spinal cord.

The vertebrae increase their form: they are top less and the bottom to be more, right up to the sacral. Different sixth cervical vertebra to the fact that his body has a bump.

When there is bleeding from the carotid artery to the tubercle of her pressed to stop the blood flow. Also different seventh cervical vertebra (it is often called the prominent vertebra).

As it noticeably sticks out. With this distinction it is often used in counting vertebrae. In the cervical, thoracic and lumbar there are still the intervertebral discs.

Different curves are formed. Distinguish:

  • lordosis (cervical and lumbar);
  • kyphosis (thoracic and sacral spine).

These curves are formed from external influences, as well as with age, when formed the spine. The child who is just born, almost not noticeable on these curves.

But they change over time. For example, when the baby begins to take sitting position, he slowly formed cervical lordosis and then the thoracic kyphosis. But in a standing position begins to develop lumbar lordosis.

With age, the length of the spine may suffer changes. In average age was seen decreasing by 5-7 cm, but the thoracic kyphosis often increases the drive to the appearance of the hump.

The reduction happens due to the fact that the bone on the body of the spine may decrease, as well as the intervertebral discs become thinner.

Features different departments

In different parts of the spine vertebrae.


In the cervical vertebrae there are transverse processes through which runs the vertebral artery and vein. The difference is only the seventh vertebra.

It is believed that the first cervical vertebra has no body, it is called Atlant. When the embryo develops, it merges with the body of a second vertebra. It has 2 arcs, but it does not have any process. Atlanta has 2 bulges on the sides.

But the second cervical vertebra has a cylindrical process, which is directed upwards. With it comes the rotation, namely, the head can rotate in different directions. The articular processes are not available.

The big difference is the seventh vertebra. It noticeably sticks out the back. It is easy to test, as it has a spinous process that sticks out well.

This is clearly seen when you tilt your head forward. With its help, doctors can test the amount єtih bodies of the spine, as it is the identification point. Is attached to many ligaments, tendons and muscles to the processes of the spine.


In the thoracic spine have articular facet (fovea), which are located on the side of the body and on the transverse processes. Serve these facets for attachment of heads of the ribs.

All vertebrae have 2 pits, only 6 and 7 have a difference: the presence of a single pit.

The body is thicker and higher, the body of the cervical, has a circular shape. All the processes create the tiles, covering one another, and the area, which is located in front of the heart, especially dense.


The largest considered lumbar vertebrae, and appendages, in this case horizontally arranged. Their direction changes as soon as people change their body position.

The sacrum

The sacral region resembles a pyramid, which is upside down. Noticeable strong bending in 3 vertebrae, but they are all fused.

They begin to connect with each other even in a child, or rather teenager, somewhere in 16 years. Completely ending the process in 25 years.

There are 4 holes through which the nerves and vessels, there are also the sacral channels. Also in this Department there are crests, there are 5 pieces.

They all came from the fact that the merged processes. Also in sacral division is connected to the pelvic bones.

By the way, in the sacrum connects to the lumbar body 5 from below. It is also worth noting that the sacrum in women is different from men’s sacrum, as it has a wider shape and is a little shorter.

The coccyx

Coccygeal bodies sometimes 4, and sometimes 5. They are attached to the bottom of the sacrum, and join the muscles of the perineum.

What if bulging vertebra?

There are such situations when the body of the spine begins to bulge, even the child, there are such problems. This happens when the intervertebral disc has shifted from a place where you were before.

After using it the spine flexible, and the load becomes smaller. Because such changes are frequently observed herniation, pinched nerves, severe pain.

But, when the pathology without pain, then most likely it’s not a strong damage, so it can be easy to get rid of. Is to do some recommendations:

  1. To exclude all actions that negatively affect the condition of the spine. For example, permanent lifting weights.
  2. Need to watch your posture. This should be done not only for beauty, since in this position the muscles and ligaments are in a situation which relieves them from unnecessary stress. Should train ourselves to follow his position, and soon it will go into a habit.
  3. Every day to do exercises that would strengthen the muscles and ligaments. Should train a child to do exercises that in the future he had no problems.

So the spine is a complex device. Is to monitor the health of each part, not to get the pathology of other organs.

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