01.12.2021

Why get vaccinated at an early age?

The introduction of vaccines in the first years of life helps babies form immunity against dangerous infections as early as possible. Infectious diseases are especially dangerous for very young children. For example, infection with tuberculosis in the first year of life is often complicated by meningitis, which can result in death.

If hepatitis B virus enters the body at an early age, the child will remain its carrier until the end of life, and serious pathologies such as cirrhosis or cancer will threaten its liver. Whooping cough is very dangerous for babies up to one year old, as it can cause suffocation and damage the brain. No less dangerous are hemophilic and pneumococcal infections, which cause difficult to treat and often lethal damage to the lungs, ear, meninges, heart, and other organs of the baby.

Many parents doubt whether to vaccinate so early because they are confident that babies under 3 years of age practically do not encounter the causative agents of such dangerous diseases.

They are wrong, because the risk of infection is always there, since many people are asymptomatic carriers. Moreover, having started vaccination before the year, by the time the child is actively exploring everything around and interacting with other people, he will already be protected from such unsafe infections.

Short description
  1. On the first day after the birth of the child,  they are vaccinated against hepatitis B, since there is a high risk of infection with such an infection from the mother or during medical procedures. The injection is performed in the first 12 hours of life. Vaccination against hepatitis is carried out up to a year 3 times – the second vaccination is given monthly, and the third in six months. If the baby is classified as at risk, the vaccination will be four – the third vaccination is postponed to 2 months of age, and the fourth is performed per year. Unvaccinated babies can be vaccinated against hepatitis B at any time using the 0-1-6 scheme.
  2. Also in the maternity hospital, the child receives another vaccine – against tuberculosis.  The babies are given BCG vaccine or a light version of it (BCG-M).
  3. At 2 months of age, begin a cycle of vaccinations against pneumococcal infection. The first vaccination is carried out in 2-3 months, the second – in a month and a half (usually in 4.5 months). In 1 year 3 months revaccination is performed, supporting protection against pneumococci.
  4. Three-month-old babies are awaited by several vaccines at once, among which one of the most important, but also the most frequently causing adverse reactions, is DPT.  This vaccination will be a good protection against tetanus, whooping cough and diphtheria. The vaccine is administered with an interval of 30-45 days three times – usually in 3, 4.5 and 6 months.
  5. At the same time, according to indications (if there are increased risks), they are vaccinated against a hemophilic rod.  The vaccine is also administered three times at the same age as DTP. There are combined drugs that allow you to do only 1 injection, and if there are several vaccines, they are administered in different parts of the body. At 18 months, DTP and the vaccine against Hemophilic infection are administered again (the first revaccination is performed). If a child has not been vaccinated against a hemophilic infection for up to 6 months, the vaccination is performed twice between the ages of 6 months and a year with an interval of one month, and revaccination is carried out according to a plan of 1.5 years. If a child has not been vaccinated against such an infection before 1 year of age, vaccination is carried out only 1 time at the age of 1-5 years.
  6. Vaccination against polio begins simultaneously with DPT.  The first two vaccinations at 3 months and at 4 and a half months are carried out with the use of an inactivated vaccine (perform injection), and for the third vaccination at 6 months in healthy children, use a live vaccine (give droplets). Revaccination from this infection in the second year of life is carried out twice – at 1.5 years and at 20 months.
  7. One year old child is vaccinated against measles, parotiditis and rubella.  Protection against all these infections is provided by one comprehensive vaccine. If for any reason the vaccination has not taken place, rubella and measles vaccination can be given as a separate preparation to children after one year at any time.
  8. From 6 months of age begin to vaccinate against influenza. Vaccination put annually for some time before a possible epidemic (fall).

Table

Year of child’s life What kind of infection is the vaccination
The first Hepatitis B:

  • on the first day of life
  • per month
  • in 2 months (according to indications)
  • at 6 months
  • in 12 months (according to indications)

Tuberculosis:

  • in the first days of life (3-7)

Pneumococcal infection:

  • in 2 months
  • in 4.5 months

Whooping cough, tetanus, diphtheria, polio, hemophilic infection  (if indicated):

  • in 3 months
  • in 4.5 months
  • at 6 months

Rubella, parotitis, measles:

  • in 12 months

Flu:

  • from 6 months in autumn
Second Hepatitis B  (not previously vaccinated):

  • under scheme 0-1-6

Flu:

  • annually in the autumn

Measles, rubella  (not previously vaccinated):

  • once

Hemophilic infection  (if there are indications to children who have not been vaccinated before):

  • once

Pneumococcal infection  (revaccination):

  • in 15 months

Whooping cough, tetanus, diphtheria, hemophilic infection  (revaccination, according to indications):

  • at 18 months

Poliomyelitis  (Revaccination) :

  • at 18 months
  • at 20 months
Third Hepatitis B (not previously vaccinated):

  • under scheme 0-1-6

Flu:

  • annually in the autumn

Measles, rubella (not previously vaccinated):

  • once

Hemophilic infection  (if there are indications to children who have not been vaccinated before):

  • once

In addition to vaccinations, children also begin to test Mantoux every 12 months, testing their immunity to tuberculosis.

Preparation for vaccination

Since only healthy babies can be admitted to vaccination, the main point of preparation should be to determine the health of the baby. The baby must be examined by a doctor. If we are talking about vaccinations in the maternity hospital, then they are permitted by a neonatologist.

Vaccinations between the ages of 1 month and 3 years are prescribed by the district pediatrician, examining the child before each vaccination. If there are suspicions of health problems, then the child should be shown to a neurologist or immunologist before the child is vaccinated.

It is also recommended to donate the baby’s blood and urine for analysis. If the baby has an increased risk of an allergic reaction, you can start giving an antihistamine a few days before the vaccination, continuing to take it and for two days after the injection.

Tips
  • Parents should buy antipyretic drugs in advance, as one of the most frequent adverse reactions of vaccinations is a temperature increase. You do not need to wait for high numbers, you can give medicine even at temperatures above 37.3 degrees.
  • Take in the clinic for the baby a toy that will help a little distract the baby from the unpleasant and uncomfortable sensations from vaccination.
  • Do not change the baby’s food several days before and after the vaccination. This is not the best time for new products and the start of feeding.

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