Cholesterol plays an important role in the functioning of human body. He is actively involved in metabolic processes, the synthesis of enzymes and hormonal regulation, helps in formation of cell membranes.
Its norm for a healthy adult is 5 mol/l or less, and to support such a rule, you need to get it outside no more than 300 mg per day.
Cholesterol is essential for human, but its excess leads to discomfort, poor health and various diseases, the most dangerous of which is atherosclerosis. This disorder can be caused by low-density lipoproteins accumulated in the bloodstream in excess amounts
Why you need a diet for high cholesterol
Modern professionals have developed a range of therapeutic interventions that help to get rid of excess low-density lipoproteins and stabilize the level of cholesterol in the body. One of these measures is mandatory following a special diet.
The normalization of the power and proper selection of products with the required content of nutrients can help prevent the progression of the disease, to normalize the functioning of the cardiovascular system, metabolic processes.
Diet for high cholesterol is based on the principles of mechanical magania. It is necessary to reduce the burden on gastrointestinal tract and normalizes the functioning of kidneys and liver.
Characterization of a cholesterol conscious diet
Medical table at an elevated level of cholesterol corresponds to the diet after Pevzner No. 10 and 10C. She is to eat foods with limited quantity of animal fat and sodium chloride.
Feature table (per day):
- energy value: 2200-2600 kcal;
- proteins – 90 g;
- vegetable fat to 30g;
- animal fat – up to 50g;
- salt – up to 5 g;
- carbs for people with high body weight – 300 g;
- carbs for people with low and normal body weight is 350g.
The main provisions of a cholesterol conscious diet
There are several principles, which corresponds to a treatment table by Pevsner No. 10:
- Food must be fractional, small portions. The day a person has to take at least 5-6 meals, thoroughly chewing each dish.
- Hunger during treatment is unacceptable. It is advisable to plan the meals so that if there were, it was minimal. You can eat fruits and fresh vegetables, if you can not time to eat.
- High cholesterol is much worse impact on women over the age of 45 yearsas they begin, naturally, to reduced levels of the hormone estrogen, which controls many important functions of the female body. Menu women older than middle age with high cholesterol should consist of a large number of products containing phytoestrogens – plant analogs of human hormones. These products include wheat germ, sesame seeds, sunflower and flax, olive oil, soybeans, chickpeas and grape seed. Most valuable for women in menopausal period are avocados, being the storehouse of polyunsaturated fat and phytoestrogens.
- The food temperature should be moderately warm. Too hot or too cold food irritates the stomach and makes the process of digestion.
- The addition of salt in the cooking process is unacceptable, your meals add salt when serving dishes on the table.
- Fill dishes exclusively vegetable oils.
- With increased content of cholesterol in the body experts recommend to eat more fruits and vegetables containing vitamins C, e and b group, or select the vitamin-mineral complex, which, in addition to these substances will include trace elements such as potassium and magnesium. These components are able to protect the vascular walls, provide antioxidant effect and stabilize blood flow and heart rate. Also from fruits, vegetables and nuts you can obtain a large amount of complex carbohydrates and fiber that are beneficial to the digestive system.
- To reduce the load on the urinary and cardiovascular systems as well as to achieve the maximum purification of the body, need to consume a day at least 1.5 liters of fluid. It is advisable to drink warm clean water or mineral.
- Any alcoholic beverages containing even minimal amounts of alcohol, is strictly prohibited. The only exception is the natural red wine containing large amounts of flavonoids. They are known for their antioxidant properties and ability to prevent the growth of plaque inside blood vessels. The therapeutic dose of red wine is 50-70 g.
- It is important to remember that for the normal functioning of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, nervous and other systems you need to eat strictly by the hour and to limit their amount in the evening. The density of the portions is gradually reduced from Breakfast to dinner. The last meal should occur within 3-4 hours before bedtime.
- Before you have the treatment of high cholesterol, people with excess weight and even minimal stages of pre-obesity is recommended to reduce weight and do physical exercise to release the body of excess weight. Excess of fat in the human body is the most negative factor of the internal environment that trigger a large number of abnormalities of the heart and blood vessels.
Compliance with these rules will lead to the increase of efficiency of treatment, reduction of excess weight and a significant improvement in the patient’s condition.
When cholesterol, according to the norms of the therapeutic table and the recommendations of the experts and allowed meals of the following products:
- vegetables and herbs: eggplant, tomatoes, zucchini, squash, legumes, all kinds of cabbage, onions and green onions, carrots, garlic, cucumbers, lettuce, beets, parsley, celery, arugula, fennel, asparagus, pumpkin, garlic, Basil;
- fruits: avocado, citrus, pomegranates, apples, pears, mango, nectarines, peaches;
- berries: gooseberries, blueberries, black currants, white and red;
- nuts and dried fruits;
- dairy products: yogurt and cheese with low-fat, low-fat cheese varieties;
- meat: beef, Turkey breast and chicken;
- all kinds of lean fish and seafood;
- soft drinks: herbal teas (pharmacy fees, chamomile, mint, rosehips), mineral water, green tea.
Forbidden foods for high cholesterol
The use of these products in this pathology is not recommended, or strictly banned, depending on the severity of the disease determined by doctor:
- ice cream;
- dairy products with high fat content;
- strong teas and coffee;
- fast food (chips, snacks, crackers, burgers, sushi and rolls, pizza, etc.);
- smoked meats and pickles;
- fatty fish and meat;
- liver and offal;
- candied dried fruit;
- pasta and bread;
- ketchup, mayonnaise, canned sauces;
- sweet pastries.
All these products have a heavy load on the digestive system and contain many substances that negatively affect the condition of the heart and blood vessels. They are able to significantly increase the level of cholesterol in the blood and exacerbate the condition even when one-time consumption.
Depending on the stage of the disease, some of the products are permissible to eat in small quantities. Permission to add them to the daily menu can only give the doctor, based on analyses obtained from the patient.
Sample menu for 1 day
Daily diet for high cholesterol can be structured similar to the following list:
- 1st meal:
- buckwheat/oatmeal on the water or in a mixture of milk and water, weak tea;
- meat omelet, tea with milk.
- 2nd meal:
- vegetable salad, dressed with olive oil;
- any permitted fruit;
- a small amount of nonfat cottage cheese.
- vegetable soup;
- vegetable stew, steamed;
- a piece of boiled lean meat or fish;
- steam cutlets;
- fresh fruit.
- a glass of lightly sweetened broth hips;
- biscuits made from bran.
- fruit or vegetable salad;
- stewed fish or meat;
- dietary curd casserole with minimal added sugar;
- weak tea or herbal decoction;
- baked vegetables;
- Before bed: a glass of kefir or yogurt.
The list can be varied by using different combinations of allowed fruits and vegetables, and gradually to complicate the improvement of health.
If you want you can eat small amounts of bread, but you need to choose pastries from the flour. It is desirable for cooking to use raw grain.