25.03.2023

Male infertility: causes and treatment of infertility in men.

Male infertility is the inability of men of reproductive age to produce the conception of a child within a year of regular sexual intercourse (at least 1 time a week) without using contraception methods. According to the world Health Organization, about 8% of couples faced with the problem of conception of the child, and in 40% of cases pregnancy does not occur through the fault of the spouse. In most cases, infertility easily cured, but even so, still should not delay with the visit to the doctor.

Many still live by the stereotypes that the impossibility of conceiving a child blame only the woman, but it is not so. In recent time, the magnitude of male infertility began to increase, and the culprit in most cases is the wrong way of life.

Causes and types of male infertility.

Factors that have negative effects on the reproductive system of men much more than women. There are three types of male infertility: secretory (poor sperm quality), obstructive (obstruction of semen), immunologic (production of antibodies that attack the sperm).

The secretory form of male infertility.

In this form of the disease the testicles do not produce enough sperm, or sperm, there are defects in the structure, as well as impaired mobility. The reason for the secretory form of infertility is always something or other impacts (disease) in a man’s testicles.

Irregularities in the testicles, causing infertility in men:
  • Varicocele (found in 25% of cases);
  • Cryptorchidism. An anomaly in which the testis is not descended into the scrotum;
  • Hydrocele;
  • Testicular cancer;
  • Parotitis (mumps), which is when complications can cause inflammation of the testicle (orchitis).
Diseases and disorders in the body:
  • Hormonal disorders (hypothyroidism, hyperprolactinemia);
  • Infectious diseases (syphilis, tuberculosis, chlamydia, typhoid);
  • Prolonged stress;
  • Deficiency of proteins and vitamins in the food.
Other external factors that reduce the quality of sperm:
  • Smoking, chronic alcoholism, use of illicit drugs;
  • Frequent Cycling or horse riding;
  • Violation of thermoregulation of the testicles (tight underwear, excessive use of the saunas);
  • Blows or injuries to the perineum;
  • Taking some medicines, radiotherapy, chemotherapy;
  • Poor environment (toxins, pesticides, radiation, heavy metals);
  • Taking anabolic steroids or excessive exercise, lowers testosterone levels.
Obstructive form of male infertility.

In this form of disease in men to promote sperm in the ejaculatory ducts becomes difficult or impossible.

Among the reasons that lead to this release:
Antisperm antibodies and incompatibility of partners.

In very rare cases, the immune system is producing antibodies that kill the sperm, with the result that it becomes impossible to produce conception. Often (10% of cases) is that both spouses have not detected any obvious causes of infertility, moreover they have, for example, there may be children from other marriages. The reason for the sterility of the pair in such cases often becomes immunological incompatibility of partners, or, in other words, women are allergic to sperm or other components of the husband’s sperm. Unfortunately, this form of infertility is very difficult to treat and it often happens that to achieve results will never be.

Methods of treatment of male infertility.

Of course, that the treatment was successful, it is necessary to spend for a first diagnosis, and then prescribe a course of treatment.

Medication.

When hormonal disruptions in the body men medications have a positive effect in the treatment of infertility. First of all, the patient must take a blood sample, and then selected individual therapy. Upon detection of a chronic or acute infections, sexually transmitted diseases, e.g. chlamydia, Ureaplasma and mycoplasmas, to great effect antibacterial therapy using antibiotics. Often, in order to increase the quality of sperm a man spells out the essential vitamins and minerals, as well along with this recommended complete abstinence from alcohol, Smoking and drugs.

Surgery.

It is not rare for the treatment of infertility in men used surgical intervention in such cases as varicocele or blockage of the VAS deferens. Studies have shown that after treatment, the problem from varicocele semen quality in men has improved in the 40 – 50% of cases.

Artificial insemination.

This method is based on that of pre-collected sperm of the husband there are the most motile and normally formed sperm. Further, through a special rubber catheter the sperm is injected directly into the woman’s uterus during ovulation. The advantages of artificial insemination include the fact that several times increases the chance to conceive a child, as well as for this procedure you can use the frozen sperm of her husband, which he left in the sperm Bank before a vasectomy.

Artificial (in vitro) fertilization (IVF).

With the advent of this method has been a real revolution in the fight against infertility. The essence of IVF is that the fertilization of the egg of the woman is outside her body, that is, in the laboratory and then the fertilized egg is transferred into the uterus of the future mother. Sometimes with IVF it is possible to achieve the birth of a child have finally lost hope for is couples. Of the downsides of this method are the fact that this procedure will cost is not cheap — a couple that wants to have a baby.

Intracyto-plasmatic sperm injection (ICSI).

One of the helper methods of in vitro fertilization (IVF). During the ICSI procedure, the doctor, the embryologist selects the most fast and healthy sperm, and then in the laboratory with the help of special tools is puncture in the shell of an egg and a sperm.

Microsurgical aspiration of sperm from the epididymis (MESA) and removing the sperm from the testicle (TESE).

This method is used when the seed men are completely absent sperm (this may be cases of inoperable impassable VAS deferens or the consequences of the operations for tumors). In some cases (for example, when blockage of the seminal tract) sperm in the ejaculate are completely absent, then fertile sperm can be obtained from the epididymis or from the testis. MESA – a method of sperm extraction from the epididymis. TESE – the piece of tissue is taken from the testicle.

In the treatment of infertility in men you need to pay attention not just to taking medication and undergoing medical treatments, but also the normalization of a healthy lifestyle. And yet, never lose hope! Many couples gave birth to the baby, and sometimes not even one, after the doctor has diagnosed on the complete impossibility of pregnancy. So never despair, and happiness will smile to you!

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *