Not always our nervous system is functioning as we would like. Depression, irritability, quick mental fatigue, nervous decline forces, forgetfulness – all of these problems often are far from old people. And or illness the brain starts to function worse. However, not all know that many psychological, neurological and cognitive problems are associated with deficiency in the body of certain substances. With the aim of filling many neurologists prescribe patients a tool such as Picamilon. What are the main features and benefits of this drug?
Pikamilon belongs to the class of nootropic drugs that is, drugs designed to improve brain metabolism and increase the intensity of the Central nervous system.
Picamilon is a drug of domestic development. More specifically, it was created in Soviet times – the all-Union scientific research Institute of vitamins. It happened in 1970 At the time Pikamilon was the first domestic original drug with nootropic activity. Since the late 80-ies of the last century Pikamilon has become widely used in clinical practice. Now doctors often recommend the drug for use in a variety of cardiovascular and neurological pathologies.
In fact, Picamilon is a compound that contains gamma-aminobutyric acid and nicotinic. This compound is called N-nicotinoyl-gamma-aminobutyric acid (nicotinoyl-GABA). Both of the component compounds play an important role in metabolism of nerve cells and maintaining them is necessary for nerve impulse transmission biochemical processes.
Niacin is also called vitamin PP and is involved in many redox reactions, the formation of enzymes and lipid metabolism. Gamma-aminobutyric acid – one of the main mediators of the nervous system, is directly involved in the process of transmission of nerve impulses.
Nootropic effect is achieved mainly due to the normalization of blood circulation in cerebral vessels, reducing resistance to blood flow from the vascular wall and increased his speed. In addition to performing nootropic functions, Pikamilon can play the role of a tranquilizer and stimulant.
Pikamilon has the following useful properties:
- improves the productivity of brain activity,
- increases stamina against mental stress,
- increases the resistance of nervous tissue to hypoxia,
- prevents the increase in the concentration of lactic acid in brain tissue
- increases the consumption of brain tissue of oxygen and glucose,
- stimulates the oxidation and reduction processes in the nervous tissue,
- reduces the severity of neurological disorders,
- has an antioxidant effect,
- improves blood circulation inside the eye,
- it improves blood flow to internal organs,
- has a cardioprotective effect.
The improvement of microcirculation is achieved largely thanks to the inherent drug ability to reduce platelet aggregation. In addition, Picamilon has a mild vasodilating properties and is able to prevent reflex contraction of cerebral vessels to lower their tone. For this pharmacological feature is responsible, first and foremost, a member of the drug nicotinic acid. Also Niacin, which aims to improve pharmacokinetic properties of GABA.
Antioxidant effect is due to the ability Picamilon to increase the resistance of cells to the effects of free radicals. Free radicals are toxic substances that can damage cell membranes and cause due to this their death. This feature is useful for all body tissues, but primarily to nervous tissue. Because, as you know, neurons do not divide, and their number over time can only decrease. However, even if the neurons do not die as a result of free radicals, they can get damaged and not perform fully its function. Picamilon prevents the process due to improve human cognitive abilities, memory and thinking, normalizerbase emotional responses and healthy is getting better sleep, disappear or motor speech disorders.
Anxiolytic or tranquilizing effect of the drug is expressed in decrease of severity of negative emotions (anxiety, fear, bad mood, aggression). It is important that Pikamilon possesses a pronounced sedative effect, does not cause drowsiness and relaxation of muscles. Moreover, Pikamilon promotes emotional activity, providing a stimulating effect.
One of the most important useful properties of Picamilon is its ability to counteract the devastating influence on the human psyche of alcohol. Thanks to this ability doctors often recommend the drug for use in cases when a person needs to get rid of alcohol addiction.
Externally, Pikamilon, more precisely, its active substance – nicotinoyl-gamma-aminobutyric acid looks like white crystalline powder that is readily soluble in water. Pikamilon has no embryotoxic and carcinogenic effects, does not cause addiction and drug dependence.
The bioavailability of the drug is high and ranges from 50% to 80%. It easily crosses the blood-brain barrier. The half-life of the drug is 30 minutes.
Indications for use
Pikamilon is assigned as neurological disorders, and in pathological processes in the nervous system caused by lack of blood supply or intoxication. Pikamilon is indicated for use in the event of violations of cerebral circulation mild and moderate, but not severe. In some cases, Pikamilon can be used in the framework alone, others as part of an integrated therapy. The acceptability of an option is determined by the attending physician.
For situations in which the drug is indicated for use include:
- encephalopathy (alcoholic, hypertensive, vascular) ;
- expressed neurotic disorders (neurosis, depression, asthenia, anxiety, emotional lability, mood swings, phobias, irritability, depression) ;
- senile (senile) psychosis;
- cerebrovascular insufficiency (insufficiency of cerebral circulation, caused by atherosclerosis or hypertension) ;
- ischemic stroke a light or medium gravity;
- the rehabilitation period after ischemic stroke;
- vegetovascular dystonia;
- chronic fatigue and reduced performance;
- the deterioration of memory and cognitive abilities;
- mild asthma or prevention of migraine (neurological disease with frequent and severe headaches) ;
- open-angle glaucoma (a disease characterized by increased ocular pressure and lesion of the optic nerve) ;
- neuritis of the auditory nerve;
- diseases of the retina and optic nerve;
- traumatic brain injury;
- alcohol intoxication;
- neuroinfections (encephalitis, meningitis, neurosyphilis) ;
- the recovery period after undergoing somatic diseases;
- asthenia caused by excessive physical or emotional stress;
- chronic alcoholism (as part of an integrated therapy) ;
- alcohol withdrawal symptoms resulting from discontinuation of alcohol ;
- the recovery of the body after heavy mental or physical work, recovery after sports training or competition;
Also Pikamilon is used in complex therapy of certain disorders of urination caused by neurological or functional reasons.
Despite the fact that the drug is easily tolerated by patients, the doctors insist that it should not be used to prevent, especially in the case of its use with children. Picamilon can have a noticeable effect on cerebral metabolism and can harm the complex natural process of formation of the child’s brain. Therefore, in children the medication should be used only in severe neurological disorders and only with a doctor’s prescription.
The drug was nictool-gamma-aminobutyric acid is represented in the form of sodium salt. There are two basic forms of the drug. This pill (dosage of 10, 20 and 50 mg of active substance) and the drug solution in ampoules intended for parenteral administration.
In addition to the active ingredient, tablets contain a number of auxiliary: starch, talc, calcium stearate, hydrate hydroxycarbonate magnesium, sucrose, stearic acid.
1 ml solution for injection contains 50 or 100 mg of active ingredient (5% or 10% solution). The solution comes in ampoules of 2 ml, therefore, each contains 100 or 200 mg of active substance. Other substances (except water) solution contains.
The solution may be administered as an intravenous, and intramuscular.
Pikamilon is released in pharmacies by prescription. Manufacturer of the drug is a Russian pharmaceutical company Akrikhin. Picamilon should be stored in dark and cool (at temperatures not above 25 Gy). The shelf life is 1.5 years.
To structural analogues of the drug are used Picanol, Pikogan, Amelanosis.
Injections or pills?
In any case, it is better to choose tablet, and in which the necessary injections? This question is in the competence of the attending physician.
Generally, the principle of the injection solution, it is preferable to do when you can not receive the drug in tablet form, for example due to the fact that the patient is unconscious and cannot swallow, vomit, etc.
Serious contraindications have no drug. It can appoint and in pediatric practice, however, for children under 3 years it is not recommended. During pregnancy and breastfeeding take the drug is also not recommended, however, in some cases, the doctor may prescribe Picamilon pregnant woman. In addition, you should not take Picamilon for acute renal failure and chronic kidney disease (because the drug is excreted through the kidneys), with individual intolerance of the drug components.
Side effects and overdose
When taking the drug orally may experience adverse effects associated with the gastrointestinal tract – nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea. Also possible negative neurological reactions – drowsiness, headache, dizziness, irritability, anxiety, confusion, agitation, or, conversely, insomnia. Not excluded, and allergic skin reactions (rash and itching), redness of the face. When administered parenterally, you may experience paresthesia (a tingling run games). With the appearance of serious side effects the lower dose of the drug – in most cases, after this unpleasant phenomena are.
Overdose is expressed by increased side effects. In such cases, symptomatic treatment, receive enterosorbents.
Because when taking Picamilon possible sedative effect and side effects associated with the reduction reaction, during treatment you should avoid driving vehicles and performance of work requiring concentration.
The dosage of tablets and duration of treatment depend on the situation. The pills are not dependent on food intake. Tablet should drink plenty of water or other liquid at room temperature (juice, tea, milk, etc.).
The treatment of cerebrovascular diseases
In cerebrovascular disease, dyscirculatory encephalopathy standard dosage is 20-50 mg (tablet Picamilon 20 or 50 mg) 2-3 times a day. Courses of therapy should be repeated every 5-6 months.
Treatment of depression in the elderly
In the treatment of depression in older adults the daily dosage is 120 mg. It should be divided into 2-3 reception. Make, the tablet must be within 45-90 days. If necessary, courses can be repeated, but not earlier than 3 months.
For the prevention of migraine is recommended to take one tablet of 50 mg three times a day. If the migraine attack has already occurred, it facilitate you need to take 2 tablets of 50 mg at a time.
Dosage for physical and mental stress
For recovery of mental and physical stress, dose of 60-80 mg 1-2 times a day. The duration of the course – 1-1,5 months.
The recommended dose of Picamilon for athletes – 4 tablets of 50 mg per day. They need to drink for two weeks prior to intense workouts.
The treatment of neurological diseases
For the treatment of asthenic syndrome in psychosis and as an anxiolytic, it should only take 2-4 pills Picamilon 20 mg 1-2 times a day. The course of treatment – 1-1. 5 months. The ineffectiveness of this scheme, the dosage can be increased to 4-6 tablets of 50 mg per day.
In the framework of complex treatment of alcoholism and alcohol withdrawal are encouraged to take a day 100-150 mg of the drug, however no longer than during the week. If during this time the withdrawal symptoms have not been, it is necessary to reduce the dosage to 40 to 60 mg per day and taking pills until the complete disappearance of symptoms.
Treatment of eye diseases
The recommended dosing for open-angle glaucoma is three 50 mg tablets per day. The course of treatment – a month. The same duration and in the case of using Picamilon, as a component of integrated treatment of ocular circulatory disorders in diseases of the retina. Dosage at the same time – 20-50 mg three times a day.
The treatment of urinary disorders
For the treatment of urinary disorders nervous Pikamilon administered at 20 mg twice a day at the age of 3-10 years, and 20 mg three times a day for children above 10 years and adults.
For the treatment of urinary disorders associated with detrusor or sphincter, Pikamilon administered in the following dosages:
- children under 10 years old – a tablet of 20 mg three times a day;
- children 11-15 years – tablet of 50 mg 2 times a day;
- children above 15 years and adults a tablet of 50 mg three times a day.
The duration of treatment in all cases is 1 month.
Instructions for use of the solution
The solution can be entered in three ways – intravenously (by infusion), intravenously (slowly) or intramuscularly. The preferred method of administration is determined by doctor in each particular case.
In chronic cerebrovascular disorders daily dose is 20-40 mg. you Can enter Pikamilon in the following diagram – in the morning to do the drip, and in the evening – intramuscular injection. Can also be used a different scheme – one decade of the patient are intravenous and one intramuscular injection. The course of treatment depends on the severity of the patient’s condition and can vary from 2 weeks to a month.
You can apply parenteral administration in the treatment of neurological disorders – neuroses and asthenic States, in particular, caused severe diseases. The daily dosage in that case, 2-4 ml of 10% solution Picamilon. Type of administration – intramuscularly, the duration of treatment is 1 month. It also recommended taking the drug in pill form.
In the treatment of alcoholism dosage is usually much higher than in other diseases. If the withdrawal is administered intramuscularly at day 2-6 ml of a 5% solution Picamilon. The course duration is one week. If the condition of withdrawal when alcohol is absent, should be administered intramuscularly 1 ml of 5% solution every day for 4-6 weeks.
In acute alcohol intoxication dose is calculated based on the weight of the patient, at the rate of 5 mg per 1 kg. for Example, if you weight 80 kg, Picamilon dosage will be 400 mg. Is the amount of drug contained in 8 ml of a 5% solution, or 4 ampoules. This volume introduces single intramuscular. In a further solution it is recommended to administer intravenous infusion morning and evening for 4 hours of 1.56 mg / kg of body weight per hour.
For the treatment of depression requires a 0.8-4 ml of 5% solution. The drug can be administered intramuscularly or intravenously (in the latter case it must be diluted) 2-3 times a day. The course duration is 1.5-3 months.
Children, of course, requires a smaller dose than adults. Children 3-10 years should take 40 mg a day in two doses, children 10 years and older – 60 mg per day in three reception. The course of treatment is 1-2 months.
Instructions for preparation of solution for infusions
To conduct infusion should be pre-cook a special recovery solution. To prepare this solution, dilute one vial of Pikamilon in 200 ml saline (solution of 0.9% sodium chloride). If necessary, you can take a greater amount of saline and drug, but it is important to follow the proportion of 1 ml per 100 ml of physiological solution.
Pikamilon for children
In pediatric practice Pikamilon can be administered with traumatic brain injuries, high mental and physical loads, in disorders of urination, mental and neurological disorders, infectious brain pathology, delayed psychological and speech development. Pikamilon can be assigned to children from the age of three. For children recommended tablets in low doses (10 or 20 mg). Pills in a dosage of 50 mg can be consumed only ten years of age. The amount of the drug and duration of treatment must appoint a physician in each case.
Pikamilon in the form of a solution are allowed to use only 14 years of age.
Pikamilon and other drugs
Serious negative drug interactions with other substances and medicines are not fixed. Picamilon has the ability to enhance the effects on the body narcotic analgesics from the group of opiates. Therefore, while taking Picamilon and drugs of this type it is necessary to adjust their dose. When taking Picamilon and barbiturates, a decrease of duration of the latter.
Pikamilon and alcohol
Some are interested in the question – is it possible to take along Pikamilon and alcohol? It is well known that Pikamilon learning ability to mitigate the negative impact on the body of alcohol. This is one of the reasons that the drug is often used for the relief of the negative consequences of alcoholism. However, you should remember that alcohol reduces the neuroprotective effect of the drug. Therefore, to deliberately take together alcohol and Picamilon should not be, especially if we are talking about the treatment is not alcohol-related diseases of the Central nervous system, since in this case the effect may be largely offset.
Reviews about Picamilon mostly positive. Many patients say that it is well tolerated and helps to restore the normal functioning of the nervous system, improve mental performance and memory. Although there are negative reviews from those who the drug did not help. The majority of patients reported good tolerability and no side effects.