Migraine is a neurological disease, which is characterized by the development of a strong, oppressive headache of different localization. Migraine medication used to address the following therapeutic objectives:
- Preventing the development of migraine attacks. In this case, the patient should know the main symptoms, which are the precursors of an attack and to take appropriate action.
- Therapy attack. In this case, appropriate use of medicines, as well as working with a therapist.
- Prevention of recurrent attack by certain groups of medicines.
Patients should remember that all drugs of migraine have an extensive list of contraindications and possible side effects. Before taking any drug it is obligatory to consult with your doctor and read the instructions to the drug.
Classification of drugs
|Pharmacological group||The name of the drug||Feature|
|Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, nonnarcotic analgesics||Preparations comprising such active substances: ibuprofen, Ketoprofen, nimesulide, diclofenac, acetylsalicylic acid.||Used for migraine and light and medium intensity. Disadvantages: are ineffective in severe pain, with prolonged use there is a risk of development of disorders of the gastrointestinal tract.|
|Drugs with a combined composition||Noehren, Tablets, Ointment, Sedalgin.||Vasoconstrictor drugs, which have a calming and analgesic effect, dispensed without a doctor’s prescription. Of disadvantages include the risk of developing chronic headache with regular, unsupervised use.|
|Antiemetic drugs – prokinetics||Metoclopramide reglan, domperidone, motilium, motilal.||Eliminate nausea and vomiting, increase the absorption ANTIMIGRAINE drugs.|
|Triptan||Sumatriptan, Eletriptan, Sumamigren, Repined, Zomig.||Constriction of blood vessels, preventing the development of aseptic inflammation, eliminate pain. Are the drug of choice for pain of medium and high intensity. Modern triptana have good tolerance, are used with the ineffectiveness of sumatriptan.|
|Narcotic pain relievers||Drugs with codeine and butorphanol.||Are second line drugs after triptanov.|
|Corticosteroids||Dexamethasone||Apply in the case of migraine status and as salvage therapy in case of intense attack.|
You must always remember:
- Migraine medication can be prescribed only by the attending physician after personal inspection and examination of the patient.
- Selection of drugs is carried out taking into account the individual characteristics of the patient and manifestations of the disease.
- Do not self medicate, because it can not provide the necessary therapeutic effects and cause complications.
- Universal regimens for the treatment and prevention of the disease does not exist. Requires an individual approach to each patient, but each subsequent attack of migraine.
- In appointing take into account concomitant disease and sensitivity to each medication.
Therapy of mild to moderate intensity
Patients present the development of headache of varying intensity and most of them are able to recognize in advance the severity of the attack. Doctors can prescribe several drugs that previously gave recommendations for what medications should be applied in a particular case.
In that case, if the duration of attacks is less than 2 days and patient was worried about the headache of mild to moderate intensity, then your doctor may prescribe the intake of simple analgesics and drugs from the group of NSAIDs, and of combined drugs, which include caffeine.
Patients need to understand that the ineffectiveness of PDCS and analgesics, and combination medications can be prescribed the medicines, including ergotamine or triptan.
Important to listen to your body’s response to a drug, to learn to self-assess the severity of the attack, evaluate results of treatment.
Treatment intense headache
In some cases, elimination of pain syndrome may need to be taking narcotic analgesics. These drugs are used in extremely severe cases, when other groups are not able to provide the required effect, caused addictive etc.
It is very important to choose the right medication for emergency case, as it will eliminate the fear of the patient before the next attack. Severe headache often accompanied by the development of nausea and vomiting. In this case, you should take a tablet of anti-nausea medication half an hour before the use of anaesthetic.
Heavy and persistent attack cropped with the use of corticosteroids. If opioid analgesics and triptana not have the desired effect, the doctor can change the treatment regimen, and optionally the use of anti-convulsants and beta-blockers.
Triptone – the gold standard of treatment
According to reviews, the most pronounced therapeutic effect have migraine agents from the group of triptans. The drug takes effect several hours after taking the pill. If you use enough of sumatriptan 50 mg (1 tablet) medications, zolmitriptan to take in a dose of 2.5 mg, eletriptan – 160 mg once. The drug should drink plenty of plain water.
Mechanism of action
The mechanism of action includes the provision of such positive effects:
- Constrict blood vessels of the brain, which helps to eliminate painful pulsation.
- Reduce the sensitivity to pain of the trigeminal nerve.
- Reduce neurogenic inflammation and pain.
- Unlike other drugs that provide more effective and immediate impact.
Migraine medication from the group of triptans used for the treatment of migraine with aura and without. These drugs cannot be used more than 2 times a 7 days.
Contraindications, side effects
Contraindications to the reception are: the development of coronary heart disease and other serious violations of functioning of cardiovascular system and raising blood pressure. Not recommended combination with antibacterial agents, antiviral and antifungal drugs.
- Dizziness, loss of sensitivity, drowsiness.
- Nausea, pain in the abdomen, vomiting, dry mouth.
- Tachycardia, muscle weakness, frequent urination.
- Allergic manifestations.
In most cases, drugs in this group possess good tolerability, possible side effects are transient and passing nature. To prevent the development of adverse reactions, do not exceed the recommended dose and use without doctor appointments.
Relief of acute attack
Migraine agents recommended for use even before the attack began. The conditions that usually occur just before a migraine include: mood changes, dizziness, increased appetite or excessive thirst, drowsiness.
The approximate scheme of treatment:
- Receive 2 tablets of aspirin in combination with antiemetic drug (as needed) and sweet beverage that contains caffeine.
- If for 40 minutes to 1 hour the pain persists, then take the right tool from the group of triptan.
- If there is an attack of migraine with aura, aspirin be immediately after development of the aura, and triptan – after the beginning of pain syndrome development.
If the patient is the migraines with aura, you can take a pill Papatola in the first few minutes of the attack.
If the attack triggered by stress, you can take at night pill Amitriptyline.
What drugs can be used to prevent?
- Drugs from the group of beta-blockers (Atenolol, Inderal), which is aimed at reducing the need for myocardial oxygen and a decrease in heart rate.
- Drugs from the group of calcium channel blockers (Nifedipin, Verapamil) – reduce blood pressure levels, increasing the diameter of your arteries.
- To complement the scheme of preventive treatment can be supplemented by an antidepressant (e.g., Prozac), anticonvulsant drugs (Carbamazepine), muscle relaxants (Mydocalm).
Patients of older age groups may be recommended nootropic drugs (Piracetam, Nootropil, Fezam).
For best effect, these drugs are recommended to be combined with non-pharmacological methods of therapy.