21.01.2021

Child development at 2 years

A two-year-old child with many tasks already knows how to cope independently. He is keenly interested in toys, easily involved in educational games and quickly absorbs information. How can you develop a child of this age and what activities to use for this?

With a child of 2 years, you can play many games!
Age features
  • The child’s coordination improves significantly, so the baby becomes able to play with the designer, sorter, mosaic, puzzles and similar toys.
  • The logical thinking of the baby develops very quickly. A child is able to find a solution to various problems, to find out how an object works or how it works.
  • At the same time, a sense of space also develops. The child tries to direct the ball with a kick, throwing it into the ring. General coordination during movement becomes better – the child is able to control the direction in which he is moving, stops, and also the speed of movement.
  • The independence and independence of a 2-year-old child is also increasing. Now the baby will try to learn new things without your help.

Most children in 2 years go through a no crisis
What should a child be able to do?

Most children aged two years already know how to:

  • Run and climb the stairs.
  • Close and open the door.
  • Step over obstacles.
  • Build towers and houses from cubes and constructor.
  • Collect a pyramid of rings of different sizes.
  • Catch the ball with both hands.
  • Play several actions in a story game.
  • Eat with a spoon and also drink from a cup.
  • Help mom around the house.
  • Understand short stories about familiar events.
  • Answer simple questions.
  • Show parts of the body and face.
  • Pronounce about 100-300 words.
  • Link 3-4 words in a sentence.
  • Name the items in the picture.
  • Say goodbye and say hello.
  • Say words in familiar rhymes and songs.
  • Simulate the sounds of animals.
  • Draw scribbles on paper.
  • Distinguish 3-4 colors.

Work hard with your child in “weak” areas
Height and weight

Compared with the indicators of 1.5 years by the age of two, children gain about 1300 grams and grow by about 5-6 cm. For girls, all indicators will usually be slightly less than for boys. In order to navigate whether the baby is developing normally, we offer you a table with average values ​​of the main indicators, as well as normal limits for children of different sexes:

Index 2 years average Limits of norm for boys 2 years The boundaries of the norm for girls 2 years
Weight 11500-12200 g 9700-15300 g 9000-14800 g
Height 86.4-87.8 cm 81.7-93.9 cm 80-92.9 cm
Head circumference 47.2-48.3 cm 45.5-51 cm 44.4-50 cm
Chest circumference 51.2-51.4 cm 48.4-54.7 cm 48.5-54 cm

By the age of two, many children have completed teething. On average, babies of this age have 16-20 milk teeth.

Types of child development
Physical

This type of development helps the child become more resilient and agile. A two year old baby needs daily physical activity.

Classes for the physical development of 2-year-old children are as follows:

  • Alternate fast running with slow.
  • We run on toes.
  • We teach the child to jump on two legs in place.
  • Ball games – throw against the wall, catch, throw to mom.
  • To maintain balance we walk on a bench, a board on the floor.
  • We copy the movements of animals after the show by our mother – we jump like a hare, walk like a bear, crawl like a caterpillar, stomp loudly like an elephant, wave our hands like a bird.
  • We roll on the floor.
  • We jump like a frog from a half-squat position.
  • We reach up to the suspended objects.
  • We run around the room, going around obstacles (for example, pillows laid out on the floor).
  • We carry lightweight items of large size.
  • We walk on an uneven surface.
  • Walking along the drawn line is straight and winding.
  • We crawl under a stretched rope.
  • Together with other children we run a little engine, play catch-up, arrange a round dance.
  • We hang on rings or a horizontal bar.
  • We master climbing the sports wall.
  • We jump on the “bumps” – pillows spread out on the floor.
  • We crawl through the tunnel.
  • We jump on the fitball.
  • We play snail – crawl with a pillow on the back.
  • We walk on hands.
Children of two years old love to play active games
Cognitive

This type of development of the baby includes the study of the world, the properties of objects, the development of logical thinking, attention, memory, the study of elements of mathematics.

Classes for the cognitive development of a two-year-old child can be as follows:

  • The study of geometric shapes.
  • Learning the colors of objects.
  • Find the named object indoors, outdoors or in the picture.
  • Find a pair by choosing from similar items.
  • Find the same patterns on hats, mittens, saucers and the like.
  • The study of the concepts of “little” and “many.”
  • Determining the difference in the number of objects – the child learns to distinguish between 1 and 2.
  • Sort items by color and size.
  • Orientation in space with the study of the concept of “right”, “bottom”, “left”, “top”.
  • Folding puzzles and split pictures, which have 2-4 parts.
  • Comparison of pictures, as well as objects in the games “where is whose mother”, “where is whose house”, “who eats what” and the like.
  • Guessing simple riddles – who eats weed and says “mu”, who is white and loves carrots.
  • Folding nesting dolls and glasses into each other.
  • Build a tower from different-sized glasses or cubes (sorting by size).
  • Comparison of geometric figures with projections in the figure.
  • Classification of cards with objects according to a common feature, for example, products, animals, toys.
  • Find the whole part, for example, pick up a roof or tail for the animal at home.
  • Find the figure, taking into account 2 signs – among all circles find a small red, among all the squares find a large green.
  • Studying the concepts of “low” and “high”, “narrow” and “wide”, “short” and “long”.
  • Pick up a shadow for the subject.
  • Find the missing part of the picture.
  • The game “what was lost” (hide one of the toys or pictures) or “what appeared” (add a picture or a toy).
  • Hide and seek games.
  • We remember together what we did in the morning, yesterday, on a walk.
  • Remember the plot of the picture.
  • Thimble game with small toys.
  • We study wild as well as domestic animals. We show the baby their cubs, tell simple facts about their lives, call the parts of the body (hooves, horns, trunk).
  • We study birds, as well as insects.
  • Acquaintance with the concept of day and night, as well as the division of the day into morning, lunch and evening.
  • The study of natural phenomena, for example, we look at a rainbow, snow or rain.
  • Acquaintance with 3-4 flowers that grow in your area.
  • A study of common vegetables and berries, as well as fruits and mushrooms.
  • Acquaintance with the seasons.
  • Conversations on the topic of transport, professions, clinics, parts of the human body, store, family, aquarium, sea, trains, materials, cities, electrical appliances and others.
  • If the child soon has to start going to kindergarten, it is important to pay attention to the discussion of the theme of the kindergarten.
  • On a walk you can learn the rules of the road, vegetation, transport, sky and sun, natural materials (stones, leaves, branches), houses.
  • Also during walks you can play with snow, with puddles, with sunbeams, with shadows and with sand.

First of all, games should be fun for both baby and parents
Touch

This type of development of the child is aimed at his senses. During such classes, they affect the tactile sensitivity of the baby, his hearing, eyesight, smell, and taste.

Classes for the sensory development of a 2-year-old baby are:

  • We feel the objects with different textures.
  • Studying the concepts of “cold” and “warm”.
  • The study of tastes and smells. We find the same smell or taste.
  • Feeling objects to determine hardness or softness, smoothness or roughness.
  • We are looking for a couple of pieces of a certain material (cotton wool, fabric, cardboard, paper).
Musical

This type of development is aimed at hearing the child, musical perception, recognition of musical instruments. It also includes dancing and singing.

To musically develop a child, such games and activities are suitable:

  • Listening to children’s songs.
  • Listening to classical music.
  • We distinguish different music – slow from fast, sad from funny, quiet from loud.
  • We listen to a variety of sounds on a walk – the noise of cars, birdsong, rustling leaves and others.
  • We determine the source of sounds, for example, we look for a bird on a tree.
  • We play different children’s musical instruments.
  • We listen to the sounds of different instruments.
  • We listen to mom’s singing.
  • We dance with mom slowly and quickly, slam and drown, make “lanterns” with our hands, put our foot on our heels, and then on our toes, and dance.
Speech

The development of the child’s speech is aimed at increasing the vocabulary of the baby and stimulating the repetition of words for the adult. It is also important to perform exercises for articulation.

Classes for speech development with a 2-year-old baby can be:

  • Replenishment of the passive vocabulary of the crumbs, constantly communicating with the baby and talking about everything that happens in his life.
  • Reading books (fairy tales, poems), as well as a discussion of what they read.
  • Ask your child questions about the image in the picture or what is happening around the child.
  • To play with fairy tales simple tales.
  • Listen and sing songs.
  • Describe the objects that the baby sees using adjectives.
  • The use of prepositions (for, in front, near, in), pronouns (here, there), adverbs (close, low, far, right, high, left and others) in speech.
  • We learn to blow on a candle, leaves, cotton, and also play with soap bubbles. You can blow both smoothly and abruptly.
  • We make faces to the mirror, showing the tongue, banging our teeth, opening our mouth wide.
  • Learning to speak in a whisper and loud.
Blowing out candles, blowing soap bubbles is a fun exercise for the speech development of crumbs.
Fine motor skills

Its development is important for the development of speech, since in the human brain the zone responsible for the movement of the hands is in close proximity to the speech zone. Due to such a close arrangement of classes, during which the child’s fingers are involved, a positive effect on the speech development of the crumbs.

Here are activities suitable for fine motor skills for a two-year-old child:

  • Finger gymnastics.
  • We are engaged in drawing, creating applications and modeling.
  • Games with insert frames, designers, mosaics, lacing, sorters, pyramids.
  • Pour the cereal from one container to another, using a spoon, funnel, hands, baby dishes.
  • Pour water from one container to another, using children’s dishes, a watering can, a jug, a funnel.
  • Games with stickers.
  • Fastening and unfastening Velcro on toys, clothes and shoes.
  • Unfastening of a lightning, buttons, buttons.
  • We catch in the water (in a basin, bowl, glass) small floating objects with a sieve or a spoon.
  • We collect water with a pipette or enema, pour into another container.
  • We collect water with a sponge.
  • Crumple and tear the paper.
  • We create patterns using small pebbles, large beans, pasta, sticks.
  • Games with clothespins.
  • We select the lid to the banks and bottles. We twist and unscrew them.

From improvised means, you can come up with a lot of activities for the development of crumbs
Creative

This type of development stimulates the creativity of the baby and may include drawing, designing, modeling, creating applications and similar actions.

Creative activities with a peanut 2 years of age can be as follows:

  • We draw circles, lines (they can be long, short, horizontal, vertical), tracks.
  • We draw strings to balls, stems to flowers, hedgehog needles, grass, rain and other simple elements.
  • We draw patterns on a towel or rug.
  • Choose a color for the picture.
  • Draw with a stick in the snow, semolina or sand.
  • We leave ink prints on paper using a sponge and stamps.
  • Learning to paint using a brush.
  • We draw with our fingers.
  • We try to roll plasticine or dough, making sausages and balls.
  • We break off part of the clay or dough to flatten these lumps in the fingers or palms.
  • The rolled sausage is connected by the ends.
  • We sculpt lumps of plasticine on cardboard, for example, to get decorations on a Christmas tree, grains for a chicken.
  • Learning to smear plasticine on paper.
  • We leave prints on plasticine or dough, using different objects.
  • We cut the dough with a plastic knife and cut it out with cookie cutters.
  • We make applications from torn or crumpled paper, as well as from cotton wool.
  • We carry out the application of an object consisting of two or three parts, for example, a mushroom, at home.
  • We make story applications from two or three objects, for example, a house, a cloud and the sun.
  • We use Dyenesh blocks, Lego constructor, as well as Kyuizener sticks in games. We build from them a house, a bridge, a fence, a mountain.
Creative development of crumbs is fun!
Social

Communication with peers is important for a two-year-old baby. The baby reaches for other children and copies their actions. In the social development of the baby, they also attach great importance to the acquisition of household skills.

Classes for the social development of a 2-year-old child will be as follows:

  • We draw the attention of the peanut to other children, trying to awaken sympathy for them.
  • Acquaintance with other children during walks, an offer to play together. Since at this age the children still do not know how to interact in the game, it is very important to participate in a joint game of an adult. It is especially important to teach the baby to play with other kids if the child soon begins to attend kindergarten.
  • We teach the child to change toys.
  • We explain when you need to feel sorry for other people, for example, if the boy fell.
  • We teach the child to wash hands using soap and towels.
  • We remove together with the baby from the table after eating.
  • We collect the spilled liquid with a sponge.
  • We teach the baby to take off his clothes on his own, and also to wear it.
  • Watering flowers with a child.
  • Together we remove the toys, folding them into place.

Teach your child to share toys, empathize with children
Sample exercise program for the week

Drawing up a weekly plan of developmental classes for crumbs helps to solve several problems at once:

  1. Do not overload the child with classes in general.
  2. Do not repeat the same activities.
  3. Do not miss out on any kind of development.
  4. Do not worry that the child is developing a little and you are missing something.

We offer an example of a weekly routine for the development of a two-year-old child:

Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday
Physical development Ball games Running with obstacles Wavy line drawing Fitball lesson Bump Jumping The game of “snail” Hand walking
Cognitive development Putting the puzzle together Find the integer part Pick a shadow for the subject We study pets Sort items by color We study the seasons Looking for the missing toy
Sensory development Feeling cold and warm objects Learning materials by touch Learning the taste Touching smooth and rough objects
Fine motor skills Playing with croup Finger gymnastics Lacing game On a walk we create patterns from small pebbles Game with clothespins Sand games Sticker game
Musical development Sing with mom Listening to the sounds of musical instruments Listening to classical music We listen to children’s songs
Speech Development We read a fairy tale Read poems We grimace in front of the mirror We discuss pictures in the book We are playing a tale Blow out the candles Shared reading with discussion of read
Creative development Paint drawing Salt Dough Torn paper applique
Social development Chatting with other kids We are visiting Sandbox walk

This is just an approximate development plan for a baby aged 2-2.5 years. To draw up your own plan, it is important to take into account the skills of the peanut, its temperament, the interests of the child, and your goals.

The plan should be noted mandatory classes, for example, a visit to a massage therapist, visiting circles, swimming in the pool. Identify the most important areas of your child’s development and plan them 5-7 times a week. Be sure to leave a plan in the plan for improvisation or independent play of the baby. After 1-2 weeks, you will be able to analyze the implementation of the plan, after which some classes will be removed or replaced.

Advice
  • You can not force a child to engage if he is against the game. Your persistence can aggravate the situation and cause a sharp rejection of educational games.
  • Remember that the concentration of the child on the game at the age of 2 lasts only a few minutes, so the lesson should not be long.
  • Be sure to praise the child if he has succeeded. This will be an incentive for further success crumbs.
  • You can not scold a child if he refuses to engage, as well as in cases where something did not work out.
  • Try to make educational games interesting for little ones. They should bring joy to the baby, and not cause boredom.

Give your child the opportunity to complete the task on their own, even if it takes a very long time. A baby cannot learn anything while you are more active in the game than the child himself.

Have fun playing with your baby
Care and mode

For the development of a two-year-old child, the health of the crumbs, which is supported by the correct regime of the day and care, is of considerable importance:

  1. It is important to ensure that the child has enough rest. Babies of this age sleep about 12-13 hours a day. Two-year-olds have one day’s sleep, which lasts 2-2.5 hours.
  2. The crumbs morning should begin with washing and brushing your teeth, as well as combing your hair. It is also important to accustom the baby to hygiene, recalling that after a walk and before eating, be sure to wash your hands.
  3. After a day’s sleep, hardening procedures are often carried out, for example, rubbing or dousing the legs.
  4. By the 2nd anniversary, many children have already mastered the pot and use it for its intended purpose. To ask for a potty, the child speaks words or makes a sign. Some kids come up to the pot and take off their pants.
  5. Walking with a child of two years is recommended daily 1-2 times, since the crumbs really need fresh air. The baby should be worn in the weather to prevent overheating, but also not to allow the child to freeze.
  6. Food 2-year-old peanut provides 4 meals with intervals of 3-4 hours between them. The nutritional value of the diet of a child of this age should correspond to 1400-1500 kcal.

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