The sciatic nerve is the largest nerve of the human body, which is formed by the spinal nerves of the sacral plexus – he is their continuation.
Where is the sciatic nerve?
It is formed outside of the spinal canal in the pelvis, passes through the breech hole and is covered by the gluteus Maximus muscle, and then descends on the posterior surface of the thighs, heading to the flexors of the lower leg. In the projection of the popliteal fossa the nerve divides into medial tibia thick and slightly thinner lateral fibular branch.
The tibial nerve innervates hamstring and the knee joint. It is located in the popliteal fossa, runs near the popliteal vessels and gives off a branch that innervates the skin of the posteromedial surface of the tibia down to the foot.
The peroneal nerve is located lateral to the outer side of the tibial nerve has a superficial and deep branch innervates the skin of lateral surface of the leg and down to the feet.
Signs of nerve injury
With the defeat of the sciatic nerve often develops:
- the so-called sciatica or radicular syndrome associated with the infringement or excessive stretching of nerve endings in the lumbar-sacral spine that may develop on the background of the herniated discs, degenerative disc disease or other lesions occurring with compression of spinal nerves;
- injury of the gluteal muscles that can be observed for cuts, bruises, breaks;
- neuralgia of the sciatic nerve, which develops during prolonged stay in a sitting position;
- metabolic disorders that negatively affect the functioning of nerves. Such disorders include, for example, diabetes, thyroid lesions, poisoning of various etiologies. They can cause paresis or paralysis of the sciatic nerve, muscle atrophy and pathological changes of sensitivity.
Neuralgia of the sciatic nerve
I must say that this muscle belongs to a mixed type, that is contains both sensitive and motor fibers, so the clinical picture of the pathological lesions manifested a variety of symptoms. Often sciatica the sciatic nerve. It can cause quite severe pain, which focus not only in the buttocks, but goes to the Shin, foot and toes. In addition, patients often complain of numbness or tingling in the extremities.
Neuralgia of the sciatic nerve you experience the following symptoms:
- pain that focuses in back of the leg and is greatly enhanced in a sitting position;
- feeling a kind of burning sensation or tingling in the feet;
- weakness of legs, numbness;
- pain shooting character, which do not allow them to stand;
- can develop back pain, but not as intense as in the legs;
- muscle weakness and increased pain when you cough or sneeze.
It should be noted that symptoms of neurological damage the sciatic nerve depends on how pronounced damage of the nerve roots, and depends on the level of lesion of a nerve trunk.
Sciatica is not a diagnosis but just a symptom of defeat
Sciatica is not an independent disease, but a syndrome that can develop in the various States. Therefore, before the therapy of lesions of the sciatic nerve need to find out the cause of their appearance and conduct individual diagnostic examinations, among which the most often used x-rays and computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. In cases where the medical history of the patient has a tumor or prolonged use of steroid medications, can be administered radioisotope scanning of the spine.
Must be a neurological examination, which includes testing reflexes and the determination of the sensitivity of the skin.
Treatment of lesions of the sciatic nerve
Treatment of lesions of the sciatic nerve is the relevant pharmacological agents, physiotherapy, epiduralny injections of steroid drugs and other methods of rehabilitation. It is proven that therapy started in the early stages of the pathological process, and the use of an integrated approach to the manifestations of pathology of the sciatic nerve gives better results than the treatment of the running of the defeat of the largest nerve in the human body.