Tendinitis – a group of inflammatory-dystrophic diseases of the tendons. In the human body a lot of them – each skeletal muscle at the point of attachment to the bones ends in a tendon, becomes inflamed, and wears however not every of them. In the area of special risk of tendon and lower upper extremities: shoulder, hip, ankle, wrist.
The inflammatory process in the tendon can occur in acute and chronic form. Consider the conditions under which it develops each of these forms of the disease.
Acute tendinitis is always the result of trauma. Under the injury means the too strong stretching of the tendon, leading to tear or complete rupture of individual tendon fibers and subsequent inflammation. This happens when sudden movements, heavy lifting, falling, when muscles contract and pull the tendon. To get injured person can in everyday life, in the performance of their professional duties, as well as during sports.
In particular the most risky in terms of development tendinitis are the following sports:
- Heavy and light lifting.
- Skiing and speed skating.
With regard to chronic tendinitis, it develops gradually and is characterized by different pathological changes in the tendon is dominated by the processes of dystrophy (degeneration) and inflammation remains in the background. In fact, we can say that tendons simply wear out.
The reasons for this can be:
- Too intense workout. When muscles and tendons do not have time to rest when every day is microfracture.
- Constant stress on the tendon while performing job duties.
- Violation of metabolism.
- Systemic autoimmune diseases in which the “target number one” is the connective tissue.
- Chronic infectious diseases and chronic inflammatory foci in the body. For example, the joints and tendons may be affected in chronic chlamydia.
- Deforming arthropathy. Many muscles are attached to bones in the joints, so if on the surface of interosseous joints any strain, the muscle tendon will always hurt.
- Pathology of the skeleton in which certain groups of muscles and their tendons feel the increased load.
Tendonitis can be suspected by the following symptoms:
- Local painful sensations that occur during active movements. This feature of the character of the pain is simple: when a muscle is relaxed, the tendon is also located in a free position, if the muscle contracts, the tendon is tensioned and, accordingly, there is pain. In some forms of tendinitis (for example, calcifying tendinite shoulder) pain are particularly pronounced. Passive motion when tendinitis can also be uncomfortable, but not painful.
- The limitation of the affected limb. That limit is raised purely by instinct – the patient is afraid to hurt myself, so trying once again not to move your hand gently to walk if the damaged tendon of the foot, etc.
- The formation of nodules under the skin in the area of the inflamed tendon. These nodules are nothing more than growths of scar tissue. They appear at a constant trauma of the tendons, and long current inflammatory process. To understand what it really is are the knots, is to make active movement of the limb, and the lumps will move along with the tendon.
- Swelling of soft tissues. The presence of this symptom does not necessarily, especially if the process is chronic.
The appearance of the symptoms described above should contact the surgeon or the orthopedist.
In most cases a doctor can make the diagnosis of “Tendinitis” without the use of additional methods of research.
This will help him:
- Interview with patient – history data about the injury information about sports preferences and characteristics of a profession related to the traumatization of the tendons.
- Inspection. Passive movement in the affected extremity will be painful, and the active, painful and even very. In the place of greatest discomfort can be determined by deformation of anatomical structures and edema of the tissues.
If you have any doubts with the diagnosis, the surgeon will give direction on:
In General, the diagnosis of tendinitis is not a difficult task to a qualified professional. The main thing to address him, and not to be engaged in Amateur performance and to treat yourself on the advice from the Internet at home.
Treatment tendinitis is determined by the nature of the pathological process and the causes of the disease. Injuries therapeutic measures consist in the temporary immobilization of the affected limb, analgesia and effective anti-inflammatory therapy. If chronic tendinitis, in addition to activities aimed at reducing pain and inflammation, be sure to treatment of the underlying disease.
Chronic tendinitis associated with the profession require not only treatment, but at least the temporary abandonment of the sport or contributing to injury to your tendons work activities. Otherwise, the recurrence of the affliction will be permanent.
Drug therapy for tendinitis
The basis of the treatment tendinitis are non-hormonal anti-inflammatory medication. Their patients are administered orally, topically and injecting – it all depends on the severity of the inflammatory syndrome. In addition, when tendinitis used drugs that improve the microcirculation and regeneration of connective tissue.
If the cause of the tendinitis was the systemic autoimmune disease to prevent the progression of degenerative processes in the tendon fibers can be used hormone therapy.
Physical therapy and exercise therapy
After reducing pain, you can proceed to the next stage of treatment, which is a physiotherapeutic impact and physical therapy.
Patients with tendinitis prescribed physiotherapy, contributing to the improvement of metabolic processes in the affected area, accelerating healing of the tendon and restore its functionality.
Usually, when tendinitis, the following types of physical therapy effects:
- Electrophoresis with anti-inflammatory drugs.
- The laser treatment.
- Ultrasound treatment.
Before the start of physical therapy the patient must visit their physician. This is necessary in order to the doctor confirmed that the tendon has healed and that you can to develop it. A set of exercises to recover from tendinitis for each patient is selected individually by the instructor LFK. The main goal of these classes lies in the fact that the patient came in your primary motor level (which was prior to the injury). To do this from workout to workout load increases, introduce new exercises, etc.
Surgical treatment tendinitis
Surgical intervention is applied only in extreme cases, for example when there is a complete rupture of the tendon fibers, or began to fester. To reduce trauma and reduce the time required for the recovery of the patient, the surgery is performed using endoscopic equipment.
After these interventions the operated limb necessarily gibaut (usually 1 month) and the patient is prescribed antibiotics and anti-inflammatory treatment. Later (after one month) begins the phase of rehabilitation – repeated courses of physiotherapy and exercise therapy.